Type III protein secretion systems are used by many bacteria to inject proteins into mammalian cells. Jorge Galan of Yale University will develop an antigen delivery machine based on the type III protein delivery system that will not require the use of live-attenuated bacteria, offering a safer vaccine platform.
|Jorge Galan||1||New Haven - CT||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 11:27 AM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Connecticut||2008||Approved||10.0|
|8||Barbara Kazmierczak of Yale University will test whether changes in the bacteria that naturally reside in human bowels affect vaccine responsiveness.||Barbara Kazmierczak||1||New Haven - CT||North America||New Hypothesis||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 2:43 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Connecticut||2008||Approved||9.0|
HIV has a very high rate of mutation allowing it to very rapidly develop resistance to AIDS therapies. The essential viral enzyme, HIV reverse transcriptase, lacks a "proofreading" or "repair activity" leading to errors or mutations. Karen Anderson of Yale University is working on "stealth" compounds that have a unique anchor specific for HIV. These compounds encourage the virus to make mutations until the virus is annihilated.
|Karen Anderson||1||New Haven - CT||North America||Alternative Prevention||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 2:45 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Connecticut||2008||Approved||8.0|
To interrupt reproduction of the malaria parasite in the mosquito gut, Greg Garcia and Sheetij Dutta of Walter Reed Army Institute of Research seek to identify and block a gametocyte stage receptor for xanthreunic acid, which is known to trigger the differentiation of gametocytes, an essential step in the life-cycle of the malaria parasite.
|Greg Garcia||1||Silver Spring - MD||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 2:47 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Maryland||2008||Approved||9.0|
|11||Jord Stam at Utrecht University in the Netherlands will attempt to create "two-sided" antibodies to fight HIV; one side would attach to HIV, and the other side would safely deposit the virus in cells in which it cannot replicate.||Jord Stam||1||Rijswijk||Europe||Alternative Treatment||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 2:55 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Netherlands||2008||Approved||7.0|
Ron Raines of the University of Wisconsin proposes to convert a ribonuclease that rapidly degrades RNA into a zymogen, an enzyme precursor that is activated only when cleaved by an HIV protease. Because this cleaving can only occur within HIV-infected cells, the toxic activity of the ribonuclease will be unleashed only in cells in which HIV is active.
|Ronald Raines||1||Madison - WI||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/17/2008 3:00 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Wisconsin||2008||Approved||7.0|
Matyas Sandor of the University of Wisconsin will graft granulomas, nodules that form as a result of long-term inflammation, to study the role they play in TB latency and reactivation.
|Matyas Sandor||1||Madison - WI||North America||Research Tool||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||10/17/2008 3:20 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Wisconsin||2008||Approved||8.0|
Ralph Albrecht of the University of Wisconsin in the U.S. seeks to develop magnetite nanoparticles conjugated to antibodies that will selectively bind to HIV-infected cells. Once bound to the infected cells, the magnetite is heated using an externally applied magnetic field; melting holes in the membrane of the infected cell and killing it.
|Ralph Albrecht||1||Madison - WI||North America||Alternative Treatment||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 3:22 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Wisconsin||2008||Approved||7.0|
To fight emergence of drug and vaccine resistance in rapidly evolving parasites, Pradipsinh K. Rathod of the University of Washington in the U.S. will identify the parts of the malaria genome which contribute to rapid increases in mutations, and will screen for small molecules that inhibit these mechanisms. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that hypermutagenesis does play a strong role in the development of drug resistance. In Phase II, Rathod’s team is continuing to isolate the genetic drivers of hypermutagenesis with the aim of developing a way to disable the process and improve success rates of anti-malarial drugs.
|Pradipsinh K. Rathod||1||Seattle - WA||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/17/2008 3:23 PM||7/12/2012 11:21 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx|
|2||none||Fall 2010||United States||Washington||2010||Approved||23.0|
Keith Jerome of the University of Washington in the U.S. will utilize a class of proteins called homing endonucleases, which have the ability to cut DNA sequences, to target the DNA sequences unique to HIV, thus disabling the virus from making any more copies of itself. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that homing endonucleases can find a model virus hidden in the genes of infected cells. In Phase II, Jerome’s team is now modifying these proteins in hopes of producing several that can specifically target and destroy HIV within infected cells.
|Keith Jerome||1||Seattle - WA||North America||Drugs||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 5:37 PM||7/12/2012 11:22 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx|
|2||none||Fall 2010||United States||Washington||2010||Approved||20.0|
Ellen Vitetta of University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas is developing a new vaccine platform that will utilize synthetic B cell epitope mimetics (peptoids) conjugated to protein carriers to make vaccines that will induce robust, specific, and protective antibody responses against pathogens.
|Ellen Vitetta||1||Dallas - TX||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 5:42 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Texas||2008||Approved||7.0|
|18||Volker Gerdts of Canada's Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization proposes to use live viral vectors to immunize fetuses during pregnancy to induce immune responses in the unborn baby, thereby protecting the infant against early life infections.||Volker Gerdts||1||Saskatoon - Saskatchewan||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 5:43 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Canada||2008||Approved||6.0|
Mark Kendall of the University of Queensland in Australia will design and test nanopatches, small patches consisting of microscopic silicon projections coated with a malaria vaccine in dry form, to target immunologically-sensitive cells within the skin’s outer layers – that are missed by the needle and syringe – to induce unique and protective immune response against the disease.
|Mark Kendall||1||Brisbane - Queensland||Oceania||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 5:49 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Australia||2008||Approved||7.0|
Xilin Zhao of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey will test whether anaerobic gas, which causes rapid depletion of oxygen, will kill the tuberculosis bacteria without permanent damage to surrounding tissue.
|Xilin Zhao||1||Newark - NJ||North America||Alternative Prevention||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 5:51 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||New Jersey||2008||Approved||8.0|
|21||Abraham Pinter of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey will study the mechanisms that make neutralizing epitopes within conserved sites of the HIV virus resistant to antibodies, and will screen for reagents that can “unmask” these epitopes so that antibodies can target and eliminate the virus.||Abraham Pinter||1||Newark - NJ||North America||Vaccines||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 5:52 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||New Jersey||2008||Approved||9.0|
Philip Bryan of the University of Maryland will use an engineered protease to destroy a specific Plasmodium surface protein that is essential in host cell invasion.
|Philip Bryan||1||Rockville - MD||North America||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 5:55 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Maryland||2008||Approved||8.0|
Using genome scans, Alfred Roca of the University of Illinois will test the possibility that isolated African populations have been repeatedly exposed to chimpanzee immunodeficiency viruses, and have evolved resistance to HIV. Ascertaining whether they display resistance to HIV could lead to new ways to fight HIV in other populations.
|Alfred Roca||1||Urbana - IL||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 5:56 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Illinois||2008||Approved||8.0|
By using strips of mosquito netting around houses to turn the homes into mosquito traps, Jacques Derek Charlwood of Denmarks DBL Center for Health Research and Development, in conjunction with the INS of Mozambique, hopes to develop a simple new technique to reduce malaria transmission.
|Jacques Derek Charlwood||1||Copenhagen||Europe||Alternative Prevention||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 5:57 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Denmark||2008||Approved||6.0|
Anwar Jardine of the University of Cape Town in South Africa will attempt to disrupt the biosynthetic pathway of mycothiol, which is produced by the tuberculosis bacterium as a protective chemical compound. By targeting this metabolic pathway specific to mycobacteria, Jardine hopes to eliminate latent tuberculosis or make it more vulnerable to existing drugs.
|Anwar Jardine||1||Rondebosch||Africa||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/17/2008 5:58 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||South Africa||2008||Approved||8.0|
|26||Because a robust immune response can actually foster HIV replication and spread, Joseph (Mike) McCune at the University of California at San Francisco in the U.S. proposed that building tolerance to HIV will hinder disease progression better than vaccinations that activate the immune system and trigger HIV activity. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated in a non-human primate model that tolerance to SIV could be induced by introducing SIV antigens to fetuses in utero. In Phase II, McCune and colleagues will work to optimize this approach by identifying which antigens best confer this “protective immunity,” and testing whether and how long this protection lasts after birth. ||Joseph McCune||1||San Francisco - CA||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 5:59 PM||7/12/2012 11:22 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx|
|4||none||Summer 2011||United States||California||2011||Approved||20.0|
|27||Dennis Hartigan-O'Connor of the University of California at San Francisco in the U.S. will test whether expanding Th17 cell populations, a subset of CD4 T cells that protect the gastrointestinal tract against microbes, can augment the gut’s general defenses and protect against the acute and chronic effects of HIV. In this project’s Phase I research, Hartigan-O'Connor and colleagues tested this hypothesis in macaques and found that the Th17 population present before SIV infection has a lasting impact on the course of disease and that natural variability in Th17 populations might partly account for variability in control of SIV infection. In Phase II, the team will test the idea that an oral drug can be used to pharmacologically manipulate Th17 populations in vivo in young macaques, the goal being enhanced control of retroviral replication.||Dennis Hartigan-O Connor||1||San Francisco - CA||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 6:00 PM||7/12/2012 11:22 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx|
|4||none||Summer 2011||United States||California||2011||Approved||19.0|
|28||Joseph DeRisi of the University of California at San Francisco proposes to engineer naturally occurring erythrotropic bacteria to target malaria infected red blood cells to serve as a potential prophylactic and treatment for malaria in humans.||Joseph DeRisi||1||San Francisco - CA||North America||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 6:01 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2008||Approved||8.0|
Douglas Nixon of the University of California at San Francisco will test his hypothesis that APOBEC proteins, which have been found to restrict replication of HIV, can be used to as an immunogen to stimulate a T cell response which would act against HIV infected cells.
|Douglas Nixon||1||San Francisco - CA||North America||Alternative Treatment||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 6:02 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2008||Approved||8.0|
Jay Solnick of the University of California, Davis will explore whether the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which can cause peptic ulcers in some people, might enhance immunity to tuberculosis and help maintain tuberculosis in a latent state.
|Jay Solnick||1||Davis - CA||North America||Alternative Treatment||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||10/17/2008 6:03 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2008||Approved||8.0|
|31||Suzanne Fleiszig of the University of California, Berkeley will attempt to decipher the molecular mechanisms that maintain broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of the healthy eye, which could lead to innovative strategies to combat infectious disease in general.||Suzanne Fleiszig||1||Berkeley - CA||North America||Drugs||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 6:03 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2008||Approved||8.0|
|32||Pulmonary macrophages are the principal host of tuberculosis, where it can remain latent and inaccessible to current TB drug therapies. Dmitry Shayakhmetov of the University of Washington will study whether infecting these host cells with adenovirus will induce rapid cell death, reducing TB load and blocking the re-infection cycle.||Dmitry Shayakhmetov||1||Seattle - WA||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||10/17/2008 6:04 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Washington||2008||Approved||8.0|
|33||François Baneyx of the University of Washington in the U.S. will synthesize nanoparticles consisting of an inorganic adjuvant core surrounded by a three-dimensional antigen shell. The particles will target lymph node dendritic cells that play a key role in initiating immune responses to infectious diseases.||François Baneyx||1||Seattle - WA||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 6:05 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Washington||2008||Approved||8.0|
Francis Nano of Canada’s University of Victoria will introduce essential genes found in Arctic bacteria into the genomes of “warm-loving” pathogens, making them unable to grow at core body temperatures. Such microbes could survive on human skin, which is cold enough to allow for replication and the stimulation of a strong immune system response, but not survive further dissemination into deeper and warmer tissue.
|Francis Nano||1||Victoria - B.C.||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 6:06 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Canada||2008||Approved||6.0|
|35||Dr. Ryan Lilien of the University of Toronto in Canada will work to computationally model the structural and functional effects of point mutations on a target protein's active site. With the development of predictive models of pathogen evolution and the spread of resistance, this information can be used to guide drug development and optimization.||Ryan Lilien||1||Toronto - Ontario||North America||Research Tool||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/17/2008 6:08 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||Canada||2008||Approved||6.0|
|36||Andrew Heath of University of Sheffield in the U.K. will research whether the immune responses to DNA vaccines can be enhanced with novel adjuvants.||Andrew Heath||1||Sheffield||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 6:10 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2008||Approved||8.0|
A3G, protein found in human cells that inactivates several viruses including HIV, is "switched off" in proliferating T cells. Harold Smith of the University of Rochester will screen for small molecule compounds that bind to A3G in cells and turn its anti-viral activity back on.
|Harold Smith||1||Rochester - NY||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/17/2008 6:11 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2008||Approved||8.0|
|38||Yue Chen of the University of Pittsburgh will attempt to develop an oral HIV vaccine based on Clostridium perfringens, a bacteria able to withstand upper GI conditions to deliver large amounts of antigens to gut-associated lymphoid tissue, a major site of HIV activity.||Yue Chen||1||Pittsburgh - PA||North America||Vaccines||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 6:23 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Pennsylvania||2008||Approved||8.0|
|39||The bacteria Bdellovibrio -- harmless to humans -- naturally kill a wide range of gram-negative pathogens which are known to cause many infections. Professor Liz Sockett of the University of Nottingham in England will study whether these pathogens have the ability to form resistance to Bdellovibrio, and if Bdellovibrio can be delivered to patients as a living antibiotic. ||Renee Elizabeth Sockett||1||Nottingham||Europe||Vaccines||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/17/2008 6:25 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2008||Approved||7.0|
|40||Vojo Deretic of the University of New Mexico in the U.S. proposed that autophagy, a process by which cells destroy cellular components and intracellular pathogens, can be induced through drug therapy to not only destroy the HIV virus in infected cells, but also to block its transmission from dendritic cells to T cells. This project's Phase I research demonstrated that autophagy can destroy HIV, block dendritic to T cell transfer of HIV, and promote antigen presentation by dendritic cells. In Phase II, Deretic’s team will screen for compounds that can induce autophagy to block HIV from infecting cells, limit HIV spread, and enhance dendritic cell immune functions.||Vojo Deretic||1||Albuquerque - NM||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 6:28 PM||12/5/2012 11:00 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx|
|4||none||Summer 2011||United States||New Mexico||2011||Approved||20.0|
|41||Dan Kaufman of the University of Minnesota will test whether natural killer cells, generated from stem cells can effectively target and eliminate HIV-infected cells.||Dan Kaufman||1||Minneapolis - MN||North America||Alternative Treatment||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 6:29 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Minnesota||2008||Approved||7.0|
|42||With a team of researchers, economists and physician-scientists, Matthew Davis of the University of Michigan will establish a program to link new vaccine discoveries with vaccine manufacturers in developing countries while simultaneously evaluating ways to help these manufacturers purchase rights to these innovative candidates.||Matthew Davis||1||Ann Arbor - MI||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 6:30 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Michigan||2008||Approved||10.0|
Marilia Cascalho of the University of Michigan will test whether a “mutable”DNA vaccine in which the gene coding for the antigen mutates a million times more frequently than a typical gene will trigger immune response that anticipates the production of new viral variants and produces broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV.
|Marilia Cascalho||1||Ann Arbor - MI||North America||Vaccines||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 6:31 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Michigan||2008||Approved||7.0|
To test the hypothesis that immunization with a non-HIV antigen will neutralize the virus, Jinhua Xiang of the University of Iowa will determine if immunization with an envelope protein of the GB Virus C elicits antibodies that block HIV replication.
|Jinhua Xiang||1||Iowa City - IA||North America||Vaccines||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 6:32 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Iowa||2008||Approved||7.0|
In pursuit of a new type of AIDS vaccine, Zhiwei Chen of the University of Hong Kong will work to use a variant of the primate CCR5 gene as an antigen and test its efficacy in inducing cross-neutralizing antibodies against this important HIV co-receptor.
|Zhiwei Chen||1||Hong Kong||Asia||Vaccines||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 6:32 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||China||2008||Approved||7.0|
Dan Feldheim of the University of Colorado in the U.S. will test his hypothesis that gold nanocrystals coated with drug compounds can effectively inhibit protein-protein interactions that often drive disease pathogenesis, will be less susceptible to evolutionary mechanisms that lead to drug resistance, and offer enhanced drug delivery characteristics. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that gold nanocrystals can be tailored to circumvent many viral and bacterial evolutionary drug resistance mechanisms. In Phase II, he is now studying the ability of small molecule-coated nanoparticles to withstand resistance mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB).
|Dan Feldheim||1||Boulder - CO||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/17/2008 6:33 PM||7/12/2012 11:22 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx|
|2||none||Fall 2010||United States||Colorado||2010||Approved||28.0|
Olaf Kutsch of the University of Alabama proposes that HIV latency is controlled by host-gene promoter interference, a mechanism that prevents the initiation of viral gene expression. Understanding how host-gene promoter interference controls latent HIV-1 infection may aid development of therapies to deplete latent HIV in patients.
|Olaf Kutsch||1||Birmingham - AL||North America||Alternative Treatment||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 6:34 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Alabama||2008||Approved||6.0|
Benjamin Chain of University College London will attempt to stimulate an antibody response against CCR5, a protein found in the body which is used by HIV to infect cells. By combining a small portion of the molecule with part of the tetanus bacterium, Chain hopes to overcome natural tolerance of CCR5 to deplete the presence of the protein and prevent a way for HIV to enter cells.
|Benjamin Chain||1||London||Europe||Vaccines||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 6:36 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2008||Approved||7.0|
Graham Rook of University College London will target an essential bacterial nutrient transport system with an iron-binding nanoparticle. The particle will be designed not only to block the pore and prevent it from taking in needed nutrients, but to also carry antibiotics that can be released in the vicinity of the bacterium.
|Graham Rook||1||London||Europe||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/17/2008 6:37 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2008||Approved||6.0|
|50||Samuel Landry of Tulane University will research the use of immune tolerance of dominant HIV epitopes prior to conventional vaccination with an HIV protein in order to stimulate a broader immune response.||Samuel Landry||1||New Orleans - LA||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 6:39 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Louisiana||2008||Approved||6.0|
Anthony Mbonye of the Tropical Disease Research Network in Uganda will assess the feasibility and effectiveness of using private sector midwives to provide HIV testing and antiretroviral drugs in an effort to reduce mother to child transmission of HIV.
|Anthony Mbonye||1||Kampala||Africa||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/17/2008 6:40 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Uganda||2008||Approved||7.0|
|52||Ms. Sanah Jowhari at TheraCarb, a biotechnology company in Canada, will apply polymer-based drug technology to capture and remove the Cholera toxin from the body of a host, and validate an approach to developing a viable drug candidate for Cholera.||Sanah Jowhari||1||Calgary - Alberta||North America||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 6:42 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Canada||2008||Approved||5.0|
|53||Irina Caminschi of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research in Australia will test whether a prototype malaria vaccine which targets a newly identified dendritic cell molecule will produce a strong antibody response without the use of adjuvants. ||Irina Caminschi||1||Melbourne||Oceania||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/17/2008 6:43 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Australia||2008||Approved||5.0|
In an effort to enhance pathogen vulnerability to existing antibiotics, Angharad Davies of Swansea University in the U.K. proposes using peptides which activate stationary-phase microbes, leading to cell growth, with the aim of increasing susceptibility to established treatments.
|Angharad Davies||1||Swansea||Europe||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/17/2008 6:45 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2008||Approved||7.0|
|56||With evidence that RNA interference is a component of virus infection resistance, Andrew Fire of Stanford University will seek to understand how RNAi can function as a natural antiviral mechanism, and how such analysis can enable the design of antiviral interventions.||Andrew Fire||1||Stanford - CA||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:09 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2008||Approved||8.0|
Christina Smolke proposes to develop synthetic RNA devices that can process and transmit molecular input signals in hopes that this technology will result in more effective, targeted strategies for detecting and protecting against infectious disease.
|Christina Smolke||1||Stanford - CA||North America||Diagnostics||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:13 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2008||Approved||7.0|
|58||Mark Davis of Stanford University in the U.S. will develop a new method to assess specific T cell responses to vaccinations. Using combinations of labeled tetramers to identify many types of T cell responses, Davis hopes to create better and more comprehensive assessments of immunity generated by vaccines. This project’s Phase I led to the development of a new way to color-code T cells as a way to visually quantify immune response to an influenza vaccine. In Phase II, Davis and his team are extending this approach to quantify immune response to other vaccines in an effort to reduce the time needed to determine if a vaccine is working. ||Mark Davis||1||Stanford - CA||North America||Research Tool||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:13 PM||7/12/2012 11:22 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx|
|2||none||Fall 2010||United States||California||2010||Approved||18.0|
To provoke an effective immune response against HIV, George Dickson of Royal Holloway –University of London will utilize HIV-based lentivectors encoded with a strong neutralizing epitope derived from tetanus toxin or influenza on its surface. By forcing production of such highly immunogenic and stable antigens, the immune system will respond with corresponding antibodies and control virus replication.
|George Dickson||1||Egham||Europe||Vaccines||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/20/2008 4:23 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2008||Approved||6.0|
|60||Using thermostable nanoparticles as a delivery mechanism, Yasmin Thanavala of Health Research Inc and Roswell Park Cancer Institute in the U.S. will work to develop a single dose vaccine that can be given as close to birth as possible to protect against multiple diseases.||Yasmin Thanavala||1||Buffalo - NY||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:25 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2008||Approved||7.0|
|61||Teun Bousema of Radboud University in the Netherlands proposed that geographic "hotspots" of malaria disease drive local transmission, and therefore that interventions would most efficiently be deployed if they targeted these hotspots. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that hotspots of malaria transmission are present at all levels of endemicity and can be sensitively detected by serological markers of malaria exposure. In Phase II, Bousema and colleagues will define hotspots of malaria transmission in Africa in a site of moderate endemicity in Mali and in the low endemicity highlands in Kenya. Once hotspots are detected, they will be targeted with a combination of those interventions deemed most efficacious based on a mathematical simulation, the goal being to locally interrupt malaria transmission.||Teun Bousema||1||Nijmegen||Europe||New Hypothesis||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:28 PM||7/12/2012 11:23 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx|
|62||Saurabh Gupta and Ron Weiss of Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the U.S. proposed creating sentinel cells that can detect the presence of a pathogen, report its identity with a biological signal, and secrete molecules to destroy it. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that commensal bacteria can be engineered to detect and specifically kill the model bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In Phase II, Gupta and Weiss will engineer the human microbiota to specifically detect and destroy the gut pathogen Shigella flexneri, which is responsible for high mortality rates in children.||Ron Weiss||1||Princeton - NJ||North America||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:29 PM||7/12/2012 11:23 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx|
|4||none||Summer 2011||United States||New Jersey||2011||Approved||16.0|
|63||People born with a natural resistance to the HIV virus have a genetic mutation in the CCR5 gene. Karthikeyan Kandavelou of Pondicherry Biotech Pvt. Ltd. in India will attempt to achieve targeted disruption of CCR5 genes, making an important first step in a new strategy to make people permanently resistant to HIV.||Karthikeyan Kandavelou||1||Pondicherry||Asia||Alternative Treatment||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/20/2008 4:30 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||India||2008||Approved||6.0|
|64||DNA vaccines, which can elicit killer T-cell response, have thus far failed to elicit reliable, strong immune response in humans. Cevayir Coban of Osaka University in Japan will use newly identified intracellular signaling molecules as components of DNA vaccines against malaria. ||Cevayir Coban||1||Suita City Osaka||Asia||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:31 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Japan||2008||Approved||5.0|
To test the theory neutralizing antibodies can be “programmed” to recognize broadly divergent HIV envelope proteins, Nancy Haigwood of Oregon Health & Science University will work to design components of an HIV vaccine using groups of related envelope sequences.
|Nancy Haigwood||1||Beaverton - OR||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:33 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Oregon||2008||Approved||6.0|
CPS conjugated vaccines, such as those used to combat pneumonia, are difficult and expensive to produce. George Wang of Ohio State University will use bacteria engineered to express CPS, the carrier protein and a key enzyme which will bind the two together in an effort to develop a simpler and more economically feasible method of vaccine production.
|George Wang||1||Columbus - OH||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:33 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Ohio||2008||Approved||6.0|
Allan Saul of the Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health in Italy will genetically modify gram-negative bacteria to generate large quantities of their outer membranes, which can be loaded with antigens that stimulate immune responses. This technology could prove to be a reliable and economic platform for generation of new vaccines.
|Allan Saul||1||Siena||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:34 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Italy||2008||Approved||8.0|
In an attempt to capture and study latent tuberculosis cells, which are reservoirs of infection and highly resistant to treatment, Kim Lewis of Northeastern University will pulse-label tuberculosis cells with green fluorescent protein. While active cells divide and dilute the GFP, latent cells, which are dormant, will remain bright green, allowing for their observation and tracking.
|Kim Lewis||1||Boston - MA||North America||Research Tool||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||10/20/2008 4:35 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2008||Approved||7.0|
|70||Eduardo Trombetta of New York University will study whether reducing the ability of lysomes to digest protein antigens in vaccines could enhance the vaccine’s ability to elicit antibody and T cell responses.||Eduardo Trombetta||1||New York - NY||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:36 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2008||Approved||7.0|
|71||Dr. Yen Wah Tong of the National University of Singapore will attempt to fabricate nanoscale, imprinted particles that can capture viruses, effectively preventing them from infecting cells. These non-toxic and biocompatible polymers can then be excreted from the body. This synthetic equivalent to natural antibodies would eliminate the need for a human immune response and resulting mutations of the virus’ DNA.||Yen Wah Tong||1||Singapore||Asia||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:37 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Singapore||2008||Approved||5.0|
Because cystic fibrosis patients and carriers appear to be resistant to tuberculosis, Jerry Nick of National Jewish Medical and Research Center in the U.S. will study whether mutations of the CFTR gene, which causes the disease, reduce or eliminate latent TB infection.
|Jerry Nick||1||Denver - CO||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||10/20/2008 4:40 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Colorado||2008||Approved||7.0|
|74||Lactobacillus bacteria, typically found in the cervix and vagina of healthy women, have been found to provide a natural barrier against HIV infection. Dr. Leonard Damelin will investigate whether anti-HIV molecules can be introduced via bacteriophages into existing Lactobacillus populations to further fortify this protective barrier.||Leonard Damelin||1||Johannesburg||Africa||Alternative Treatment||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/20/2008 4:41 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||South Africa||2008||Approved||5.0|
Ali Munawar of Molecmo Nanobiotechnologies in the U.S. aims to identify the specific protein that enables the HIV virus to access various sites within the host cell for replication. Identification of this protein will advance the development of a novel class of small molecule inhibitors that disrupt the HIV life cycle.
|Ali Munawar||1||Medford - MA||North America||Drugs||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/20/2008 4:42 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2008||Approved||8.0|
Pandelakis Koni of the Medical College of Georgia will study the complex sugar coating that surrounds and protects HIV to see if parts of this shield can serve as targets for a vaccine, to generate antibodies that bind to and accelerate the killing of HIV-infected cells.
|Pandelakis Koni||1||Augusta - GA||North America||Vaccines||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/20/2008 4:43 PM||3/21/2012 2:56 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Georgia||2008||Approved||7.0|
|77||Timothy Geary at McGill University in Canada proposed screening chemicals derived from the biological diversity found in Africa to identify lead compounds for the development of drugs to treat infections caused by parasitic nematode worms. In this project’s Phase I research, Dr. Geary established drug discovery centers at the Universities of Botswana and Cape Town, South Africa to screen for compounds that target a nematode family of peptidergic G Protein-coupled receptors. In Phase II, the team is expanding the screening efforts.||Timothy Geary||1||Montreal - Quebec||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/20/2008 4:44 PM||7/12/2012 11:23 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx|
Dirk Linke of the Max Planck Society in Germany seeks to identify and classify all the molecules that make up the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, which causes a major portion of infectious diseases. By recognizing common elements among these molecules, a broad-range vaccine could be developed to protect against a number of these diseases.
|Dirk Linke||1||Tuebingen||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:44 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Germany||2008||Approved||5.0|
|79||Pattamaporn Kittayapong of Mahidol University in Thailand will study how Wolbachia, a symbiotic bacteria which infects many species of insects, may to limit dengue virus infection in mosquitoes.||Pattamaporn Kittayapong||1||Nakhompathom||Asia||Drugs||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:45 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Thailand||2008||Approved||5.0|
|80||Brendan Wren of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine in the UK will test a new bacterial synthesis method, Protein Glycan Coupling Technology. This method uses bacteria to attach proteins to glycans to produce glycoconjugate vaccines, and it could lead to an improved vaccine against pneumococcal disease. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that a Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide could be transferred to a carrier protein in E. coli. In Phase II, this research will be extended to further capsular determinants with the goal of producing a broad coverage, inexpensive pneumococcal vaccine.||Brendan Wren||1||London||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:46 PM||7/12/2012 11:23 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx|
|4||none||Summer 2011||United Kingdom||2011||Approved||15.0|
|81||Amelia Crampin of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine will study a group of people found to have latent tuberculosis in the 1980s to test her hypothesis that a measurable portion of them have cleared the infection spontaneously. Proof that some people can clear infection opens the door for research to discover how this works. ||Amelia Crampin||1||London||Europe||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||10/20/2008 4:47 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2008||Approved||7.0|
Barry Peters of Kings College London will study the balance of tolerizing and stimulating immunity in HIV patients identified as “long-term non-progressors” in an effort to determine whether it is development of tolerance to HIV, and not immunity, which prevents the progression of the disease to AIDS.
|Barry Peters||1||London||Europe||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/20/2008 4:54 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2008||Approved||7.0|
|83||Professor Hiroyuki Matsuoka of Jichi Medical University in Japan will attempt to design a mosquito that can produce and secrete a malaria vaccine protein into a host’s skin. The hope is that such mosquitoes could deliver protective vaccines against other infectious diseases as well.||Hiroyuki Matsuoka||1||Shimotsuke||Asia||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 4:56 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Japan||2008||Approved||5.0|
|84||Elijah Songok at the Kenya Medical Research Institute hopes to better understand preliminary findings from studies of sex workers that natural resistance to HIV may be linked to genetic markers for type 2 diabetes.||Elijah Songok||1||Nairobi||Africa||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/20/2008 5:34 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Kenya||2008||Approved||5.0|
|85||Huan Nguyen of the International Vaccine Institute in Korea will explore whether green fluorescent protein is endowed with unique immunological properties which could be used to develop a universal flu vaccine.||Huan Nguyen||1||Seoul||Asia||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 5:36 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||South Korea||2008||Approved||5.0|
Nur Alam of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh will test whether adding L-isoleucine and Vitamin D to food served to hospitalized children will induce secretion of antimicrobial peptides that can aid recovery from acute diarrhea and pneumonia.
|Nur Alam||1||Dhaka||Asia||Nutrition||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 5:37 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Bangladesh||2008||Approved||5.0|
Humberto Lanz-Mendoza of Mexico’s Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica will test whether mosquitoes can become resistant to dengue and malaria by the introduction of non-virulent pathogens, which might stimulate immune priming and protect against subsequent infections.
|Humberto Lanz-Mendoza||1||Cuernavaca - Morelos||North America||Vectors||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 9:03 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Mexico||2008||Approved||5.0|
Hiroshi Kiyono of the University of Tokyo will work to advance a rice-based oral vaccine that can induce both mucosal and systemic immunity. If successful, the MucoRice™ system can be self-administered and will not require syringes or refrigeration.
|Hiroshi Kiyono||1||Tokyo||Asia||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/20/2008 9:04 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Japan||2008||Approved||5.0|
Carmenza Spadafora of Panama’s Institute of Advanced Scientific Investigations and High Technology Services and José A. Stoute of Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine in the U.S. investigated whether malaria can be treated by microwave irradiation, an idea based on the unique electromagnetic properties of hemozoin, a metabolite formed by Plasmodium parasites in infected red blood cells. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that malaria parasites inside red blood cells are sensitive to low doses of microwaves that do not harm uninfected red blood cells. The Phase II grant (awarded to Dr. Stoute) will allow them to extend their results from the Phase I grant (awarded to Dr. Spadafora) by validating parasite killing effects in a mouse model of malaria and exploring the mechanism by which microwaves induce parasite death.
|Jose Stoute||1||Hershey - PA||North America||Alternative Treatment||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/20/2008 9:06 PM||7/12/2012 11:23 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx|
|4||none||Summer 2011||United States||Pennsylvania||2011||Approved||20.0|
|90||Alexandre Alcais of French National Institute for Health and Medical Research will study whether there is a genetic basis for innate resistance to TB infection through genome-wide linkage analysis of TB-specific T-cell phenotypes. ||Alexandre Alcais||1||Paris||Europe||Research Tool||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||10/20/2008 9:09 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||France||2008||Approved||6.0|
|91||Johnny He of Indiana University proposes to engineer biodegradable nanoparticles that target active and latent HIV-infected cells by binding to the carbohydrate portion of the protein gp120, which the virus uses to seek out host cells. The “sticky” nanoparticles would then bind HIV, either in the blood, or within cells, killing the virus.||Johnny He||1||Indianaoplis - IN||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/20/2008 9:10 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Indiana||2008||Approved||8.0|
Samantha Sampson of Imperial College London proposes introducing short strands of modified DNA into tuberculosis cells for direct and highly specific targeting of DNA sequences. If successful, it will effectively “lock” DNA, obstruct replication and transcription, and prevent bacterial growth and survival.
|Samantha Sampson||1||London||Europe||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/20/2008 9:13 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2008||Approved||6.0|
|93||Sarah Fortune of Harvard University will research whether chromatin crystallization, in which DNA condenses into a protective matrix due to environmental stress, occurs in tuberculosis and is a characteristic of latent organisms.||Sarah Fortune||1||Boston - MA||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||10/20/2008 9:14 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2008||Approved||8.0|
Tayyaba Hasan of Harvard University in the U.S. will work to design a conjugate which will attach to the GP63 enzyme of the Leishmania parasite. This therapy will consist of a lightactivatable, non-toxic chemical that will be activated by a light source, killing the parasite but leaving surrounding cells intact.
|Tayyaba Hasan||1||Boston - MA||North America||Alternative Treatment||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/20/2008 9:15 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2008||Approved||7.0|
Employing new high throughput methods, antibiotic screening technologies and rapid genomic sequencing methods, George Church of Harvard University will partner with labs in South Africa to develop a new approach to identifying, studying, and limiting emerging drug resistance.
|George Church||1||Boston - MA||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/20/2008 9:16 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2008||Approved||7.0|
Roy Kishony of Harvard University will seek to identify chemical entities that act as “selection inverters” which actively target antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Selection-inverters could be used in combination with traditional antibiotics to prevent resistance and possibly even drive a drug-resistant bacteria population back to drug sensitivity.
|Roy Kishony||1||Boston - MA||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/20/2008 9:21 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2008||Approved||7.0|
To generate the large numbers of infective malaria sporozites needed for use in an effective vaccine, James Kublin of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in the U.S. will use high throughput screens to develop a library of media compounds needed to optimize in vitro production.
|James Kublin||1||Seattle - WA||North America||Research Tool||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/21/2008 11:58 AM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Washington||2008||Approved||7.0|
|98||While humans and chimpanzees share an overwhelming similarity between genes, primates exhibit a resistance to AIDS. Walter Messier of biotechnology company Evolutionary Genomics in the U.S. will research the mechanisms of eight genes that have adapted in chimps to identify how viral suppression works.||Walter Messier||1||Lafayette - CO||North America||Drugs||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/21/2008 11:59 AM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Colorado||2008||Approved||7.0|
|99||John Altman of Emory University in the U.S. will research whether a drug which induces lymphopenia and is currently in clinical trials can effectively reduce T-cell exhaustion and induce immune-mediated clearance of the SIV infection.||John Altman||1||Atlanta - GA||North America||Drugs||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/21/2008 11:59 AM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Georgia||2008||Approved||7.0|
George O’Toole, a microbiologist at Darmouth Medical School, and Mark Grinstaff, a biomedical engineer and chemist at Boston University, will work to develop an expansile nanoparticle, packed with high concentrations of antibiotics, which would expand and release their content when internalized by host cells. The hope is that more precise delivery of high concentrations of antimicrobial agents, in single or combination therapies, will reduce the development of resistance.
|George O Toole||1||Hanover - NH||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/21/2008 12:00 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United States||New Hampshire||2008||Approved||8.0|
|101||Shi-hua Xiang of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute in the U.S. proposed engineering Lactobacillus, bacteria which normally reside in the human genital and gastrointestinal tract, to carry anti-HIV agents such as neutralizing antibodies, peptides, or other inhibitors. He and his colleagues hypothesized that introducing the engineered bacteria into the gastrointestinal tract would allow the bacteria to colonize and provide long-lasting protection against the virus. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that the engineered anti-HIV Lactobacillus can efficiently block HIV infection in a tissue culture system. In Phase II, Xiang (now at the University of Nebraska) and colleagues are testing this approach in a non-human primate model.||Shi-hua Xiang||1||Lincoln - NE||North America||Alternative Treatment||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/21/2008 12:01 PM||7/12/2012 11:23 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx|
|4||none||Summer 2011||United States||Nebraska||2011||Approved||17.0|
|102|| Carl Nathan, Julien Vaubourgeix and Gang Lin of Weill Cornell Medical College will test their hypothesis that tuberculosis is able to exit latency by distributing damaged proteins to a senescent cell lineage, while more functional proteins are diverted to a lineage with full replication potential. Regulating this post-latency cell division could be the target of new drugs. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that M. tuberculosis accumulates irreversibly oxidized proteins when its replication is blocked. These proteins form small aggregates that fuse into larger ones. One member of the progeny pair retains the aggregates when cell division resumes. In Phase II, the team will work to identify the genes that control this process for use in screens to find new and more powerful TB therapies.||Carl Nathan||1||New York - NY||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||10/21/2008 12:01 PM||11/1/2012 8:34 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2008||Approved||8.0|
Anne Moscona of Weill-Cornell Medical College will investigate a new approach to treating respiratory viral disease by using artificial cell-like structures to present molecules that would attract the virus and activate the fusion mechanism it uses to enter cells. By triggering this mechanism prematurely, viruses can’t enter target cells and cause infection.
|Anne Moscona||1||New York - NY||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/21/2008 12:02 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2008||Approved||8.0|
Optical information, temperature gradients, trace gases and volatile odors are key sensory inputs for mosquitoes. To mitigate the transmission of malaria, Szabolcs Marka of Columbia University in the U.S. will research how optical irradiation might be used to physically disrupt mosquitoes' sensory systems such that they can't find human hosts. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that insects are repelled or change their flight behavior in response to different infrared light gradients. In Phase II, Marka’s team will build on this research to design a prototype device that can deter insect vectors from human hosts.
|Szabolcs Marka||1||New York - NY||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/21/2008 12:03 PM||7/12/2012 11:22 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx|
|2||none||Fall 2010||United States||New York||2010||Approved||18.0|
Brian Foy and Massamba Sylla of Colorado State University will research whether providing endectocides, drugs that kill parasitic worms, to animals and humans will effectively kill mosquitoes which feed on them. Through targeted and spaced drug administration, mosquitoes incubating disease-causing pathogens are expected to die prematurely, thus interrupting disease transmission, but these methods would limit the development of endectocide resistance.
|Brian Foy||1||Fort Collins - CO||North America||Alternative Prevention||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/21/2008 12:04 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Colorado||2008||Approved||7.0|
|106||Nikita Malavia of Boston's Children's Hospital has teamed up with MIT's Robert Langer to engineer nanoparticles that mimic host cells in an attempt to deceive viruses into releasing genetic material which is rendered useless by viral inhibitors.||Nikita Malavia||1||Boston - MA||North America||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/21/2008 12:05 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2008||Approved||7.0|
Odile Ouwe Missi Oukem of Cameroon’s Centre International de Reference Chantal Biya will set up a suite of computer tools to manage and analyze biological, clinical and epidemiological data collected from African HIV-infected patients to better study HIV resistance to antiretroviral drugs.
|Ouwe Missi Oukem Odile||1||Yaounde||Africa||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/21/2008 12:06 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||Cameroon||2008||Approved||5.0|
|108||Hugo Soudeyns of Canada's Centre de Recherche du CHU Sainte-Justine will incorporate engineered frameshifting gene cassettes into vaccine vectors in hopes of eliciting broader T helper and cytotoxic T cell response, leading to better protection against disease.||Hugo Soudeyns||1||Montreal - Quebec||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/21/2008 12:07 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||Canada||2008||Approved||5.0|
Olen Kew of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the U.S. will attempt to develop a safe and effective polio strain for use in an inactivated vaccine by modifying codon usage patterns in polio strains to control viral mutation rates, lower infectivity, and raise genetic stability.
|Olen Kew||1||Atlanta - GA||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/21/2008 12:08 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Georgia||2008||Approved||7.0|
|110||HIV uses protein interaction pathways to force host cells to make more HIV copies. Judith Klein of Carnegie Mellon University aims to use advanced computational methods to predict parallel pathways that can be found and used to circumvent the points of HIV interception.||Judith Klein||1||Pittsburgh - PA||North America||Drugs||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||10/21/2008 12:10 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Pennsylvania||2008||Approved||7.0|
Stephen Johnston of Arizona State University will investigate whether HIV causes deficient protein synthesis in infected cells. This knowledge could be used to stimulate normal human T cells to destroy infected cells based on these aberrant host antigens.
|Stephen Johnston||1||Tempe - AZ||North America||Vaccines||Cure Infection||HIV infection||10/21/2008 12:11 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Arizona||2008||Approved||7.0|
|112||Marilyn Fernandez of Altor Bioscience Corporation in the U.S. will engineer single chain T cell receptors (TCR) to deliver immunotherapies to HIV-infected cells. These TCRs will be engineered to recognize known viral variants to linked to the emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutations.||Marilyn Fernandez||1||Miramar - FL||North America||Vaccines||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/21/2008 12:13 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United States||Florida||2008||Approved||7.0|
|113||With evidence that microRNA can interfere with host immune response, Qian Gao of Fudan University in China will compare microRNA expression profiles of those with active and latent TB to detect which genes which have significant differences in expression.||Qian Gao||1||Shanghai - Shanghai||Asia||New Hypothesis||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||10/21/2008 12:16 PM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||China||2008||Approved||5.0|
|119||Manipulation of skin cells can now create pluripotent cells which can proliferate and differentiate into many human cell types. This new technology will be employed by Jeanne Loring of the Burnham Institute for Medical Research to generate pluripotent cell lines for ethnically diverse populations to be used a genetically appropriate model to develop more specific and appropriate therapies against infectious disease. ||Jeanne Loring||1||La Jolla - CA||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||11/21/2008 9:23 AM||3/21/2012 2:57 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round1.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2008||Approved||7.0|
|120||Uri Selome McKakpo of the University of Ghana will develop and test a rapid dipstick test that utilizes monoclonal antibodies to detect parasite antigens present in urine of infected individuals. Using this technology, the team hopes to create a new diagnostic test for malaria that requires minimal training to use and does not depend on invasive blood samples. ||Uri McKakpo||2||Accra||Africa||Diagnostics||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/8/2009 3:01 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Ghana||2009||Approved||5.0|
Oladele Akogun of the Common Heritage Foundation in Nigeria seeks to develop a “fever kit” for use among nomadic populations to help them accurately diagnose and treat fevers in a way that reduces mortality and drug resistance. The device will be equipped with simple diagnostic tools and prerecorded treatment instructions in the native language to help nomadic caregivers distinguish between malaria and other causes of fevers, and will also contain drug treatments appropriate to the diagnosed illness.
|Oladele Akogun||2||Jimeta-Yola||Africa||Diagnostics||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/8/2009 3:46 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||Nigeria||2009||Approved||5.0|
To optimize the effectiveness of current anti-tuberculosis drugs, Boitumelo Semete of the CSIR in South Africa will work with collaborators to develop “sticky nanoparticles” that specifically attach to TB-infected cells. Once taken in by these cells, the nanoparticles will slowly degrade, releasing the anti-TB drugs and killing the bacteria. With this novel drug delivery system, the team aims to improve the bioavailability of the current therapies, with the possibility of shortening the treatment period for TB as well as reduce drug side effects.
|Boitumelo Semete||2||Pretoria||Africa||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/8/2009 3:52 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||South Africa||2009||Approved||6.0|
Because DDT is the only insecticide that remains effective for more than a year, Walter Focke of the University of Pretoria in South Africa will investigate how insecticides degrade when applied on an indoor surface. Focke will then study whether combining the insecticide with paint to create a “whitewash” can mitigate this disintegration and enhance stability.
|Walter Focke||2||Pretoria||Africa||Vectors||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/8/2009 3:54 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||South Africa||2009||Approved||5.0|
|124||Existing malaria vector control methods (e.g. nets and insecticide sprays) primarily target mosquitoes that enter or attempt to enter human dwellings, yet mosquitoes also obtain significant proportions of essential resources outdoors. Fredros Okumu of Ifakara Health Institute in Tanzania and his co-investigators therefore proposed the use of strategically-located outdoor vector control devices. In this project’s Phase I research, the team created new and easy-to-use outdoor methods for luring, trapping and killing mosquitoes, including major African malaria vectors. By combining mosquito lures with mosquito-killing agents, they showed that in addition to trapping, it was consistently possible to contaminate and slowly kill between 74% and 95% of wild malaria vectors visiting the outdoor devices. In Phase II, the team will improve their decoy prototypes and explore practical ways in which the outdoor mosquito control strategy can be implemented by rural and remote communities in malaria endemic areas.||Fredros Okumu||2||Ifakara Town||Africa||Vectors||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/8/2009 4:00 PM||7/12/2012 11:23 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx|
Golam Rabbani of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) will study the effects that a new model of indoor cooking stove with concealed combustion chambers and ventilation chimney has in reducing indoor air pollution and subsequently, reducing acute lower respiratory infections and TB in children.
|Golam Rabbani||2||Dhaka||Asia||Alternative Prevention||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/8/2009 4:01 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Bangladesh||2009||Approved||5.0|
Because malnutrition, micronutrient deficiency and parasitic worm infection are all major risk factors for developing visceral leishmaniasis, Dinesh Mondal of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) will study if VL development can be prevented in asymptomatic patients through nutritional supplements of vitamin A, zinc and iron, as well as anti-helminth treatment.
|Dinesh Mondal||2||Dhaka||Asia||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/8/2009 4:04 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Bangladesh||2009||Approved||5.0|
Chen Yangchao of the Chinese University of Hong Kong proposes developing a lentiviral vector that targets the entry and replication of influenza viruses in domestic chickens. The team plans to test the ability of these modified chickens to be resistant to various influenza viruses in an effort to reduce the frequency of flu epidemics in poultry and, ultimately, in humans.
|Chen Yangchao||2||Hong Kong||Asia||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/8/2009 4:06 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||China||2009||Approved||6.0|
Guang-hong Tan of Hainan Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicine in China seeks to create a next-generation malaria vaccine by deleting a gene responsible for parasite development in the liver adding a new gene which attracts dendritic cells to the infection site. Using this modified sporozoite in a vaccine could produce a limited infection that, at the same time, induces a strong immune response against malaria.
|Guang-hong Tan||2||Haikou - Hainan||Asia||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/8/2009 4:08 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||China||2009||Approved||4.0|
Bongkoch Tarnchompoo of the National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Thailand will attempt to develop and test a novel drug that binds to the two pathways used by the DHFR enzyme in P. falciparum to mutate. By tethering these active sites, the dual-binding drug will suppress the development of resistance to anti-malarial drugs.
|Bongkoch Tarnchompoo||2||Pathumthani||Asia||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/8/2009 4:09 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||Thailand||2009||Approved||8.0|
Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is the leading cause of diarrhea in the developing world. Roy Robins-Browne, of the University of Melbourne, in Australia will evaluate the effectiveness of a prototype vaccine that combines enterotoxin of E. coli (which lacks immunogenicity by itself) with another epitope to attract helper T cells and a lipid adjuvant to ensure delivery of the antigen directly into the cell.
|Roy Robins-Browne||2||Melbourne||Oceania||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/8/2009 4:32 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Australia||2009||Approved||5.0|
Ines Atmosukarto of Lipotek Pty Ltd. in Australia proposes to develop a novel TB vaccine utilizing synthetic “nano-sacs” called liposomes that carry TB antigens and are anchored with a self-adjuvanting protein that binds to and stimulates dendritic cells.
|Ines Atmosukarto||2||Canberra||Oceania||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/8/2009 4:34 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Australia||2009||Approved||5.0|
|133||Louis Schofield of The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Australia will develop a synthetic saccharide-conjugated vaccine that would provide immunity against GPI, a toxin produced by the malaria parasite that is a major determinant in the severity and fatality of the disease. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated preclinical safety and efficacy of a synthetic anti-toxin vaccine for malaria, showing that the oligosaccharide target was conserved across all malaria species and life stages. In Phase II, Schofield is extending the preclinical evaluation of efficacy of this candidate vaccine against other species and life stages.||Louis Schofield||2||Melbourne||Oceania||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/8/2009 4:36 PM||7/12/2012 11:23 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx|
|134||Mosquito transmitted pathogens such as dengue and malaria are a significant disease burden on the world’s population. Paul Young of the University of Queensland in Australia aims to develop a novel vaccine approach that is based on blocking mosquito transmission of these disease agents rather than inducing pathogen-specific immunity.||Paul Young||2||Brisbane - Queensland||Oceania||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/8/2009 4:37 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Australia||2009||Approved||8.0|
Fasséli Coulibaly of Monash University in Australia will design a novel vaccine platform based on protein micro-crystals produced by insect viruses. Coulibaly will engineer vaccines that utilize this stable structure to present multiple antigens with a slow-release delivery, and will test their ability to induce a vigorous immune response without the need for refrigerated vaccine storage.
|Fasseli Coulibaly||2||Clayton||Oceania||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/8/2009 4:39 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Australia||2009||Approved||5.0|
Julio Scharfstein of Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro in Brazil will study whether a pre-dose of captopril, an established angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and anti-hypertension drug, can increase the potency of vaccines by increasing the activation of dendritic cells.
|Julio Scharfstein||2||Rio de Janeiro||South America||Alternative Prevention||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/8/2009 4:40 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Brazil||2009||Approved||6.0|
Gustavo Fioravanti Vieira of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil will create 3-D computer models of viral epitopes anchored to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules associated with different MHC alleles to search for “generalist” epitopes. Such epitopes can be used to develop viral vaccines that are effective against a broad spectrum of pathogens.
|Gustavo Fioravanti Vieira||2||Porto Alegre - Rio Grande do Sul||South America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/8/2009 4:42 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Brazil||2009||Approved||6.0|
Because adult stem cells reside in a microenvironment that maintains an inactive metabolic state, Bikul Das of Stanford University in the U.S. will examine whether TB hijacks this niche to maintain latency.
|Bikul Das||2||Stanford - CA||North America||Research Tool||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||4/8/2009 4:55 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||9.0|
|139||In organisms that have extreme mutation rates, such as RNA viruses, quasispecies are highly diverse genotypes that may drastically differ from the general population and often become less viable as they continue to mutate. Using new deep sequencing technology, Marco Vignuzzi of the Pasteur Institute in France hopes to identify such RNA viruses that have managed to retain attenuated strains in order to study these genotypes for possible use in the development of viral vaccines. ||Marco Vignuzzi||2||Paris||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/8/2009 5:16 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||France||2009||Approved||5.0|
|140||HIV uses the CCR5 co-receptor protein found in mammals as a major pathway to enter target cells. Because some patients who are exposed, yet resistant, to the virus, or have HIV but do not ever progress to AIDS can exhibit the presence of CCR5 internalizing antibodies, Lucia Lopalco of the San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Italy will attempt to generate “anti-self” antibodies against CCR5 to knock out protein’s co-receptor and effectively block HIV entry.||Lucia Lopalco||2||Milan||Europe||Alternative Prevention||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/8/2009 5:20 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Italy||2009||Approved||7.0|
|141||Because tuberculosis manipulates host cells to resist the immune response and current drug therapies, Nigel Savage of Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands will utilize RNAi analysis to identify the essential pathways used by the bacteria to modify its host cell. By discovering these pathways, novel therapies can be developed to counteract this host manipulation without directly targeting the pathogen and causing the development of resistance. ||Nigel Savage||2||Leiderdorp||Europe||Alternative Treatment||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/8/2009 5:22 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||Netherlands||2009||Approved||6.0|
|142||Reto Brun (Swiss Tropical Institute) and Isabel Roditi (University of Bern) seek to identify the molecules that cue African trypanosomes, which are parasites that cause fatal sleeping sickness, to differentiate into the life stages necessary for transmission of the parasite. Knowing how to force this transformation prematurely within the mammalian host will allow new ways to kill trypanosomes. ||Reto Brun||2||Basel||Europe||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/8/2009 5:23 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||Switzerland||2009||Approved||8.0|
Erich Cerny of Wissenschaftlicher Fonds Onkologie in Switzerland will test whether inducing antibodies against anti-malarial drugs can significantly prolong the half-life of that drug. Antibodies elicited via immunization may form a reservoir of the active drug for long-lasting treatment for malaria. Such a “small molecule vaccine” has significant implications for efficacy and cost of malaria prevention.
|Erich Cerny||2||Geneva||Europe||Alternative Treatment||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/8/2009 5:25 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Switzerland||2009||Approved||7.0|
|144||Melody Swartz and Jeffrey Hubbell of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland, will explore the use of a robust and inexpensive nanotechnology, which may penetrate lymph tissue to more effectively trigger immune responses, as a new tool for prevention of TB. ||Melody Swartz||2||Lausanne||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/8/2009 5:26 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Switzerland||2009||Approved||6.0|
|145||Luke Savage and Dave Newman led engineers at Exeter University in the United Kingdom in a program to develop a handheld, inexpensive battery-powered instrument that can rapidly diagnose malaria. By using magneto-optics to detect the hemozoin crystals produced as a byproduct of malaria parasite digestion of hemoglobin in the red blood cell, they avoid relying on invasive blood sampling. The project’s Phase I research produced a robust hand-held diagnostic device able under laboratory conditions to detect malarial infection at well below 100 parasitized red blood cells per microliter in less than two minutes. In Phase II, simpler yet improved second generation devices will undergo further development and clinical testing under field conditions until they can meet the sensitivity and specificity standards required of a test for malaria. ||Luke Savage||2||Exeter||Europe||Diagnostics||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/8/2009 5:28 PM||7/12/2012 11:23 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx|
|4||none||Summer 2011||United Kingdom||2011||Approved||14.0|
|146||One hypothesis of why protective immunity to HIV in the general population is very low is that the virus can exist in a hidden form in the body and can mutate very quickly to escape immune destruction. George Dickson of Royal Holloway University of London will design and evaluate so-called "infinite-epitope" vaccines for their potential to provide simultaneous and broad protective immunity to the many variant forms of HIV.||George Dickson||2||Egham||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/8/2009 5:29 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2009||Approved||6.0|
|147||Because human carriage of pneumococcus usually results in improved immunity to future infections without any development of disease, Stephen Gordon of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom will use an intranasal inoculation with a safe strain of the bacteria to study the mechanisms of mucosal immunity in the lungs and to explore the potential for a vaccine based on his findings. In this project’s Phase I research, Gordon successfully demonstrated that human carriage of pneumococcus provides improved immunity to future infections, and that nasal inoculation immunizes the lungs against the pathogen. In Phase II, Gordon will work to assess the reproducibility of his model to ensure its robustness as a candidate for a pneumococcal vaccine. ||Stephen Gordon||2||Liverpool||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/8/2009 5:30 PM||7/12/2012 11:24 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx|
|3||none||Fall 2011||United Kingdom||2011||Approved||17.0|
|148||Maria Lerm of Linkoping University in Sweden will test her hypothesis that TB latency is a dynamic process in which a portion of the bacilli, when ingested by macrophages, trigger a genetic program where bacteria cycle between active and latent phases. Understanding whether this dynamic cycle exists could give new insights into maintaining or targeting the latent bacteria, which is the major reservoir of TB globally.||Maria Lerm||2||Linkoping - Ostergotland||Europe||Research Tool||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||4/8/2009 5:32 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||Sweden||2009||Approved||6.0|
|149||A high HIV mutation rate enables escape from powerful immune responses and anti-retroviral drugs. Reuben Harris of the University of Minnesota in the U.S. will test the hypothesis that HIV requires the human APOBEC3G protein to maintain a high mutation rate necessary for HIV survival. Inhibiting this protein may slow the mutation rate and make the virus more susceptible to immune responses. ||Reuben Harris||2||Minneapolis - MN||North America||Drugs||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/20/2009 3:48 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Minnesota||2009||Approved||9.0|
|150||Larry Walker of the University of Mississippi in the U.S. will test an innovative approach to mitigate the toxicity of primaquine, a promising and powerful malaria drug. Walker will separate the drug into two components, called isomers, to see if a single form retains the ability to eliminate the malaria parasite in its latent liver stages and the mature gametocytes while reducing toxic side effects. ||Larry Walker||2||University - MS||North America||Drugs||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/20/2009 3:52 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Mississippi||2009||Approved||7.0|
|151||People born with a genetic mutation in their CCR5 gene are naturally resistant to HIV infection. Philip Gregory of Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. in the U.S. will use zinc finger nuclease technology to specifically disrupt the CCR5 gene as a new strategy to make people resistant to HIV.||Philip Gregory||2||Richmond - CA||North America||Alternative Prevention||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/20/2009 3:53 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||8.0|
|152||Bryce Chackerian and David Peabody at the University of New Mexico in the U.S. have developed a new phage display system based on highly immunogenic virus-like particles (VLPs), and will utilize this new system as a platform to identify new vaccines that induce broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV.||Bryce Chackerian||2||Albuquerque - NM||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/20/2009 3:56 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||New Mexico||2009||Approved||6.0|
|153||Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are essential components of the innate immune system that provides resistance to a variety of pathogenic organisms by selectively lysing, or bursting, cellular membranes of invading pathogens. Doron Greenbaum of the University of Pennsylvania in the U.S. will test whether small molecules that mimic the natural AMPs can selectively kill the parasite that causes malaria. Such an approach could reduce costs of production as well as limit the emergence of drug resistance.||Doron Greenbaum||2||Philadelphia - PA||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/20/2009 3:57 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Pennsylvania||2009||Approved||7.0|
|154||Philana Ling Lin of the University of Pittsburgh in the U.S. will use imaging technologies such as PET and CT scans to study the biological mechanisms related to the reactivation of latent tuberculosis to better understand the fundamental characteristics of reactivation, as well as provide insight about new ways to induce or limit reactivation of latent tuberculosis. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that a variety of tuberculosis lesions types (with both high and low metabolic activity) are seen during latent infection and lesions with higher levels of metabolic activity were more likely to reactivate under immune suppression. In Phase II, Lin will study how these lesions evolve during early infection to determine what factors may be responsible for the development of active disease and latent infection.||Philana Lin||2||Pittsburgh - PA||North America||Research Tool||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||4/20/2009 3:58 PM||7/12/2012 11:24 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round2.aspx|
|3||none||Fall 2011||United States||Pennsylvania||2011||Approved||19.0|
|155||John Abrams of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in the U.S. will utilize novel mutagenesis and selection strategies to develop new variants of the Cry protein, a toxin producing the pathogen Bt, in an effort to create customized insecticides that can selectively target disease vectors without harming humans and non-target species. ||John Abrams||2||Dallas - TX||North America||Vectors||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/20/2009 3:59 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Texas||2009||Approved||7.0|
|156||Patrick Kiser of the University of Utah in the U.S. will design a vaginal gel that blocks HIV by becoming impermeable in response to the pH change induced by the presence of semen, and includes a polymer engineered to bind to HIV surface proteins to halt viral transport to susceptible tissues and HIV target cells. In this project’s Phase I research, Kiser and his team engineered a synthetic polymer that has many of the properties of mucus, and demonstrated that the polymers slow or stops the movement of cells in the presence of semen. In Phase II, Kiser will focus on developing a pericoital contraceptive gel that will prevent the movement of spermatozoa into the uterus.||Patrick Kiser||2||Salt Lake City - UT||North America||Alternative Prevention||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/20/2009 4:00 PM||7/12/2012 11:24 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx|
|3||none||Fall 2011||United States||Utah||2011||Approved||17.0|
|157||Guirong Wang and colleagues at Vanderbilt University in the U.S. have recently identified key sensory heat receptors used by mosquitoes to target hosts. Wang will use these proteins as molecular targets to develop insect repellents and masking agents that block or hyper-stimulate these receptors and reduce the ability of the vectors to find hosts and spread disease. ||Guirong Wang||2||Nashville - TN||North America||Vectors||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/20/2009 4:05 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Tennessee||2009||Approved||6.0|
|158||Kyu Rhee of Weill Cornell Medical College in the U.S. will test the theory that the tuberculosis (TB) bacterium uses protein-based structures termed metabolosomes to enter into, maintain, and exit from latency or non-replication. Understanding how metabolosomes work will aid in development of drugs that target TB. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that latent or non-replicating M. tuberculosis undergo a metabolic remodeling that is accompanied by the reversible formation of enzyme-based metabolosomes. In Phase II, Rhee and colleagues will characterize and determine how essential these metabolosomes are to entering and exiting latency or non-replication, which could help identify them as targets for new drug therapies for TB.||Kyu Rhee||2||New York - NY||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||4/20/2009 4:07 PM||11/1/2012 8:34 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2009||Approved||8.0|
|159||Laurel Lagenaur and the team at Osel, Inc. in the U.S. will engineer a native human vaginal Lactobacillus to secrete a potent and broadly antiviral domain antibody fragment and evaluate the microbe’s ability to prevent HIV infection in the vaginal mucosa. In this project’s Phase I research, Lagenaur’s team examined levels of expression of HIV-neutralizing proteins by Lactobacillus. Recently several broadly neutralizing domain antibodies have been identified. In Phase II, the team will focus on engineering the natural vaginal bacteria to express the higher potency antiviral antibody m36.4, and test in vivo the strain’s ability to protect against (S)HIV challenge in macaques.||Laurel Lagenaur||2||Bethesda - MD||North America||Alternative Prevention||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/20/2009 4:08 PM||7/12/2012 11:24 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx|
|3||none||Fall 2011||United States||Maryland||2011||Approved||16.0|
|160||Lynda Morrison of St. Louis University in the U.S. will develop a vaccine vector based on a prototype vaccine for herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) that encodes multiple CD8 T cell epitopes from HIV proteins, and test its ability to stimulate a robust CD8 T cell response against HIV.||Lynda Morrison||2||St. Louis - MO||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/20/2009 4:09 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Missouri||2009||Approved||6.0|
|161||Ruth Ruprecht of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in the U.S. will develop a new vaccine platform for HIV based on the hypothesis that immunodominant regions of the virus may be irrelevant to neutralizing the virus and also prevent access to neutralizing epitopes in conserved regions. The team will also use structural mimics of important epitopes in an effort to generate a strong, broadly neutralizing antibody response against these conversed sites. ||Ruth Ruprecht||2||Boston - MA||North America||Vaccines||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/20/2009 4:12 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||8.0|
|162||Loren Walensky of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in the U.S. will apply a new chemical technology to engineer structurally stable HIV-1 antigens for vaccine development. Walensky will test whether preserving the critical biologically active shape of HIV-1 polypeptides will yield neutralizing antibodies upon vaccination with his laboratory’s synthetic immunogens.||Loren Walensky||2||Boston - MA||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/20/2009 4:13 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||7.0|
|163||The physiology of the tuberculosis bacteria during latency is not well understood. Babak Javid of the Harvard School of Public Health in the U.S. will explore the hypothesis that latent bacteria are metabolically active during latency. The team will use novel genetic probes to determine whether transcription and translation occur in the population of cells that are responsible for re-activation of TB from models of latency.||Babak Javid||2||Boston - MA||North America||Research Tool||Cure Infection||Tuberculosis latency||4/20/2009 4:13 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/LatencyInTB/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||8.0|
|164||Manoj Duraisingh of the Harvard School of Public Health in the U.S. will use RNAi screening to identify critical determinants in human red blood cells (erythrocytes) that are required for invasion and growth of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. In this project’s Phase I research, Duraisingh’s group developed a RNAi-based approach for genetic analysis of the erythrocyte in vitro, and demonstrated that the major surface protein Glycophorin A is required for efficient invasion by some strains of P. falciparum. The group made progress in the development of a high-throughput RNAi screen, which in Phase II of the project Duraisingh hopes will identify those essential erythrocyte determinants that are most amenable to the development of host-targeted drug therapies.||Manoj Duraisingh||2||Boston - MA||North America||Research Tool||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/20/2009 4:15 PM||7/12/2012 11:24 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx|
|3||none||Fall 2011||United States||Massachusetts||2011||Approved||17.0|
|165||Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena, of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health in the U.S. proposes to modify bacteria that naturally inhabit the mosquito midgut to secrete proteins that interfere with the development of the malaria parasite in the mosquito that is necessary for malaria transmission. ||Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena||2||Baltimore - MD||North America||Vectors||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/20/2009 4:17 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Maryland||2009||Approved||8.0|
|166||Gyanu Lamichhane of Johns Hopkins University in the U.S. will develop a novel vaccine for TB based on existing BCG vaccines modified to express a gene that is specific to latent TB in order to generate a robust immune response to a latent infection. ||Gyanu Lamichhane||2||Baltimore - MD||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/20/2009 4:18 PM||4/4/2012 9:12 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Maryland||2009||Approved||8.0|
|167||Proteins known as TRP channels are responsible for coordinating sensations of taste, temperature, light and pheromones. Craig Montell of Johns Hopkins University in the U.S. will use high throughput screening to identify compounds that can activate these TRP channels in insect vectors of disease for use in a new generation of insect repellents. ||Craig Montell||2||Baltimore - MD||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/20/2009 4:19 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Maryland||2009||Approved||11.0|
|168||Jeff Schorey of the University of Notre Dame in the U.S. will evaluate the use of exosomes, which are small membrane vesicles released from macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as a new platform for TB vaccines. Exosomes contain proteins and glycolipids that can elicit a robust innate and acquired immune response. ||Jeff Schorey||2||Notre Dame - IN||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/20/2009 4:20 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Indiana||2009||Approved||7.0|
|169||Kasturi Haldar of the University of Notre Dame in the U.S. will rapidly screen malaria parasite genes that are essential for invasion and growth in human red blood cells. Characterizing these proteins may reveal novel vaccine targets for blood stage infection. ||Kasturi Haldar||2||Notre Dame - IN||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/20/2009 4:21 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Indiana||2009||Approved||7.0|
|170||David A. Spiegel of Yale University in the U.S. will pursue an antibiotic strategy called “biosynthetic immunotargeting.” Streptococcus pneumoniae will be fed small molecules which they will incorporate into their cell walls. These small molecules contain an epitope recognized by antibodies in the human bloodstream, leading to immune clearance independent of bacterial antigens, representing a unique, resistance-free approach to pneumococcal disease. ||David Spiegel||2||New Haven - CT||North America||Alternative Treatment||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/20/2009 4:22 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Connecticut||2009||Approved||7.0|
|171||For viral replication, HIV viruses are dependent upon proteins, called proteases, to appropriately cleave peptides and form functional viral particles. Craig Crews of Yale University in the U.S. will attempt to exploit these proteases by designing a drug that will cleave only to HIV protease and release a cytotoxin that results in programmed cell death.||Craig Crews||2||New Haven - CT||North America||Drugs||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/20/2009 4:23 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Connecticut||2009||Approved||8.0|
|172||CO2 present in exhaled air is used by Anopheles mosquitoes to find their human hosts. Anandasankar Ray of University of California-Riverside plans to identify odors that inhibit the mosquito’s CO2- sensitive olfactory neurons, and design long-distance repellents that block the ability of mosquitoes to detect humans and protect large areas. ||Anandasankar Ray||2||Riverside - CA||North America||Vectors||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/20/2009 4:24 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||8.0|
|173||Marcus Horwitz and colleagues at UCLA in the U.S. will develop and test a novel drug delivery system in which nanoparticles loaded with anti-TB drugs selectively target macrophages, and release the drugs intracellularly via a pH-dependent gate, allowing delivery of high concentrations on antibiotics into the host cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.||Marcus Horwitz||2||Los Angeles - CA||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/20/2009 4:26 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||7.0|
Highly infectious “superspreaders” often drive the spread of infectious agents but are difficult to identify and treat. Leor S. Weinberger of UCSD and James Lloyd-Smith of UCLA will develop and test engineered pseudoviruses called Therapeutic Infectious Particles (TIPs), which conditionally replicate along with the pathogen as it spreads through populations, but have their virulence elements replaced with therapeutic elements that slow down disease progression and curtail transmission.
|Leor S. Weinberger||2||San Diego - CA||North America||Alternative Prevention||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/20/2009 4:27 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||7.0|
HIV destroys helper T cells, which are essential to activation of B-cells. Irvin Chen of UCLA in the U.S. will utilize inducible pluripotent stem cell technology to generate a constant, self-renewing source of antigen-specific B-cells, which target conserved HIV epitopes to eliminate HIV-infected cells.
|Irvin Chen||2||Los Angeles - CA||North America||Alternative Prevention||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/20/2009 4:28 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||8.0|
Recent evidence suggests that HIV infection may be drastically enhanced when a specific protein found in human semen is present in fibril form. David Eisenberg of UCLA in the U.S. will design and test a small peptide that can effectively block formation of fibrils on this protein. If successful, the therapy could be administered via spray or liquid drops to inhibit transmission of HIV.
|David Eisenberg||2||Los Angeles - CA||North America||Alternative Prevention||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/20/2009 4:30 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||7.0|
|177||Gadi Borkow of Cupron, Inc. in the U.S. will study the efficacy of using newly developed copper-oxide based filters that deactivate a wide range of viruses, including HIV-1, as a shield to enable HIV-infected mothers to breastfeed their infants without risking transmission of the virus.||Gadi Borkow||2||Greensboro - NC||North America||Alternative Prevention||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/21/2009 9:45 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||North Carolina||2009||Approved||9.0|
|178||David Sokal of Family Health International in the U.S., with colleagues at Cambridge and Drexel Universities, will develop and test low-cost filters coated with safe microbicides that can be inserted into tips of nipple shields to prevent HIV transmission during breastfeeding. ||David Sokal||2||Durham - NC||North America||Alternative Prevention||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/21/2009 9:47 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||North Carolina||2009||Approved||9.0|
|179||Anders Hakansson of the University of Buffalo in the U.S. has identified a protein from human breast milk (Human Alpha Lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cell, or HAMLET), that kills respiratory tract bacteria. Hakansson will attempt to understand the mechanism by which HAMLET binds to and kills pheumococci without the bacteria developing resistance. ||Anders Hakansson||2||Buffalo - NY||North America||Alternative Treatment||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/21/2009 9:48 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2009||Approved||8.0|
|180||In an effort to develop a low cost and easily transportable therapeutic, Eric Lam of Rutgers, State University of New Jersey in the U.S. will develop transgenic tomatoes that express RNAs that targets several relevant viruses. The team will test whether these antiviral RNAs can accumulate in mammals after their ingestion to suppress viral proliferation. ||Eric Lam||2||New Brunswick - NJ||North America||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/21/2009 9:51 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||New Jersey||2009||Approved||7.0|
|181||Jefferson Vaughan of the University of North Dakota will seek to augment zooprophylaxis, the practice of using livestock to divert mosquito blood feeding away from humans, by developing an anti-mosquito vaccine for cattle that kill the insect before they bite humans. ||Jefferson Vaughan||2||Grand Forks - ND||North America||Vectors||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/21/2009 9:53 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||North Dakota||2009||Approved||6.0|
|182||Little is known about the role taste plays in the mosquito feeding process. Paul Breslin of the Monell Chemical Sense Center in the U.S. will test the sensitivity of the mosquito taste system to human skin compounds in an effort to identify key compounds that cue the insects to accept or reject blood meals from humans.||Paul Breslin||2||Philadelphia - PA||North America||Vectors||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/21/2009 9:54 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Pennsylvania||2009||Approved||7.0|
|183||Gerald R. Smith of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in the U.S. seeks to identify inhibitors of a bacterial DNA repair enzyme that allows tuberculosis to mutate. Identifying these inhibitors could lead to therapies that kill bacteria and limit drug resistance. ||Gerald R. Smith||2||Seattle - WA||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/21/2009 9:56 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Washington||2009||Approved||7.0|
|184||When malaria parasites infect different human cells, including liver and red blood cells, it is thought that microRNAs are important developmental cues that facilitate specific events in the parasite life cycle. Jen-Tsan Chi of Duke Medical Center in the U.S. will test whether expressing liver-specific microRNAs within red blood cells will trick the parasite into undergoing liver-stage development, leading to its death. ||Jen-Tsan Chi||2||Durham - NC||North America||Alternative Treatment||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/21/2009 10:05 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||North Carolina||2009||Approved||10.0|
|185||Heimo Riedel of the West Virginia University School of Medicine in the U.S. will apply zinc finger nucleases as molecular scissors to directly disrupt the genome of human papilloma virus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical cancer. Once validated, this approach could also be applied to fight other infectious diseases including malaria, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. ||Heimo Riedel||2||Morgantown - WV||North America||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/21/2009 10:06 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||West Virginia||2009||Approved||7.0|
|186||To better understand the role that antimicrobial peptides play in the immune system, Gregory Tew of the University of Massachusetts Amherst in the U.S. will test synthetic molecules that mimic these peptides for their ability to clear bacteria by engaging the innate and adaptive immune system. ||Gregory Tew||2||Amherst - MA||North America||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/21/2009 10:10 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||7.0|
|187||Ofer Levy at Children’s Hospital Boston in the U.S. will determine whether synthetic molecules called imidazoquinolines activate newborns’ white blood cells, and could be used as candidate vaccine adjuvants to dramatically enhance immunization at birth. In this project’s Phase I research, Levy demonstrated that Toll-like Receptor-7 and -8 agonists are superior to agonists of other Toll-like receptors and to alum, an already approved vaccine adjuvant, in activating newborn immune responses in studies in vitro. In Phase II, Levy will conduct in vivo studies to test the ability of these molecules to boost vaccine responses, evaluating both the safety and efficacy of this approach.||Ofer Levy||2||Boston - MA||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/21/2009 10:11 PM||7/12/2012 11:24 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx|
|3||none||Fall 2011||United States||Massachusetts||2011||Approved||18.0|
|188||When blood-consuming sand flies transmit leishmaniasis they also inject substances from their saliva into humans that are necessary for small numbers of parasites to establish infection. William Wheat from Colorado State University in the U.S. will test whether a vaccine that neutralizes an important sand fly saliva component (maxadilan) will prevent parasitic infection. ||William H. Wheat||2||Fort Collins - CO||North America||Alternative Prevention||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/21/2009 10:12 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Colorado||2009||Approved||7.0|
|189||The intestinal disease cholera uses cell-to-cell signaling to coordinate its growth and virulence in the human gut. John March of Cornell University in the U.S. is developing strains of commensal bacteria that naturally reside in the gut to express the key chemical signals used by cholera to abort the colonization process and allow the pathogen to pass through the G.I. system without causing symptoms. ||John March||2||Ithaca - NY||North America||Alternative Prevention||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/21/2009 10:13 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2009||Approved||7.0|
|190||Glycans are an important component of surface molecules in tuberculosis but their role in protective immunity is still largely unexplored. Carlos Rivera-Marrero and Richard D. Cumming of Emory University in the U.S. will develop high-throughput glycan microarrays to identify glycan antigens, determine their chemical structure, and design glycan-peptide vaccines for future testing. ||Carlos Rivera-Marrero||2||Atlanta - GA||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||4/21/2009 10:16 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Georgia||2009||Approved||7.0|
|191||Antibodies and the complement system work together to specifically detect and clear viruses, but they are circumvented by HIV, which hides itself and the cells it infects by hijacking host proteins such as CD59. Qigui Yu of Indiana University School of Medicine in U.S. will attempt to unmask HIV and HIV-infected cells and render them susceptible to antibody-complement attack. In this project’s Phase I research, Yu and his team identified a potent, specific, and non-toxic inhibitor of human CD59, which is used by HIV to escape destruction by antibody-complement attack. In Phase II, Yu will continue to research how this inhibitor might allow antibodies to regain their complement-mediated activity to destroy the virus and HIV-infected cells, and will also research how HIV-1 incorporates human CD59 onto viral particles to escape antibody-complement immunity.||Qigui Yu||2||Indianaoplis - IN||North America||Alternative Prevention||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/21/2009 10:17 PM||7/12/2012 11:24 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx|
|3||none||Fall 2011||United States||Indiana||2011||Approved||17.0|
|192||Laser light at a specific setting can activate antigen presenting cells in the skin and temporarily make cellular membranes permeable. Mei X. Wu and colleagues at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School in the U.S. will test whether injection of a vaccine into laser-exposed skin can significantly enhance immune responses stimulated by the vaccine.||Mei X. Wu||2||Boston - MA||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/21/2009 10:19 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||7.0|
|193||Thomas Baker, Matt Thomas and Andrew Read of Pennsylvania State University in the U.S. will infect malaria mosquitoes with an insect-specific fungus to determine if the infected mosquitoes’ sense of smell is suppressed and their ability to find human hosts and transmit malaria is reduced.||Thomas Baker||2||University Park - PA||North America||Vectors||Cure Infection||Malaria eradication||4/21/2009 10:21 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Pennsylvania||2009||Approved||7.0|
|194||To test the theory that certain metabolic pathways essential to the survival of bacteria are immutable and therefore promising targets of drug therapy, Krishna Kodukula and colleagues at SRI International in the U.S. will identify peptides that bind key metabolites of M. tuberculosis, and test their ability to kill the bacteria.||Krishna Kodukula||2||Harrisburg - VA||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/21/2009 10:23 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Virginia||2009||Approved||7.0|
|195||To harness a woman’s immune system to prevent HIV-1 infection, John Fahey and Charles Wira at Dartmouth Medical School in the U.S. will identify SERMs (selective estrogen receptor modulators) similar to those used for treating breast cancer and osteoporosis that can induce local immune protection in the reproductive tract against HIV without compromising normal reproductive function or increasing the risk of HIV infection. ||John Fahey||2||Hanover - NH||North America||Alternative Prevention||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/21/2009 10:25 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||New Hampshire||2009||Approved||7.0|
|196||The neurotransmitter octopamine is unique to the invertebrate nervous system and plays a crucial role in invertebrate behavior and fertility. Mark Alkema of the University of Massachusetts in the U.S. will attempt to design drugs to disrupt the biosynthesis of octopamine as a new strategy to interfere with the lifecycle of invertebrate parasites.||Mark Alkema||2||Worchester - MA||North America||Drugs||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/21/2009 10:27 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||7.0|
|197||T. brucei, the parasite that causes sleeping sickness, must continuously swim forward in human blood to evade immune responses. Arthur Günzl of the University of Connecticut Health Center in the U.S. will attempt to develop serum-stable RNA molecules to immobilize the parasite by interrupting the mechanism driving parasite motility. ||Arthur Günzl||2||Farmington - CT||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/21/2009 10:28 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Connecticut||2009||Approved||8.0|
|198||Alice Telesnitsky of the University of Michigan in the U.S. seeks to define and characterize HIV interactions with host RNA. The team will attempt to determine whether disrupting or mimicking essential interactions with host RNAs may lead to antiviral strategies to which HIV cannot readily develop resistance. ||Alice Telesnitsky||2||Ann Arbor - MI||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Drug resistance||4/21/2009 10:30 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/LimitDrugResistance/Topics/DoNotGenerateResistance/pages/round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Michigan||2009||Approved||10.0|
Kuan-Teh Jeang of the National Institutes of Health in the U.S. will investigate whether cells infected by one virus become resistant to infection from other viruses, and if this viral interference can confer protection against HIV. The team will develop an attenuated virus to test whether over-expression of viral envelope proteins within cells can confer resistance to further HIV infection.
|Kuan-Teh Jeang||2||Bethesda - MD||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||HIV infection||4/30/2009 4:47 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Maryland||2009||Approved||7.0|
Because Leishmania is transmitted to humans when sand flies feed on humans, Jesus Valenzuela of the National Institutes of Health in the U.S. proposes to develop a novel vaccine against salivary proteins of sand flies with the aim to induce a strong immune response against the parasite.
|Jesus Valenzuela||2||Bethesda - MD||North America||Alternative Prevention||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/30/2009 4:49 PM||4/4/2012 10:55 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Maryland||2009||Approved||8.0|
BK virus is a very common and non-pathogenic virus that persists in specific organs for long periods of time. Simon Lacey of Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope in the U.S. proposes using an engineered BK virus as a vaccine vector to introduce HIV polyepitope sequences in hopes of inducing a strong and long-lasting immune response against HIV.
|Simon Lacey||2||Duarte - CA||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||4/30/2009 4:51 PM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||8.0|
|203||Vaccinating infants against infectious disease is complicated by newborns' immature immune systems, the tendency of their immune systems to mount Th2-biased responses, and interference from maternal antibodies. Dr. Babiuk's team is working to develop new formulations of vaccines that can induce a long-lasting, balanced immune response in infants after a single-administration vaccination.||0-Challenge Grants||Saskatoon - Saskatchewan||North America||Vaccines||Improve Childhood Vaccines||Challenge Grant||7/22/2009 2:06 PM||11/1/2012 8:34 AM||Linking Innate and Specific Immunity to Develop Single Dose Vaccines for Neonates||Dr. Lorne A. Babiuk|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Create Effective Single Dose Vaccines That Can Be Used Soon After Birth||Canada||2005||Approved||19.0|
|204||Dr. Jiang’s team is identifying components of human cells that microbes use to establish an infection and replicate but that are not essential to the human host. Better understanding of microbial replication and survival from the view of host cells, the project team anticipates, will provide a foundation for novel therapeutic approaches to combat infectious diseases while simultaneously providing a low likelihood of inducing drug resistance. These compounds could potentially work by interrupting microbes from creating the environment they need to replicate in human cells.||0-Challenge Grants||Beijing||Asia||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Challenge Grant||7/23/2009 11:48 AM||11/1/2012 10:16 AM||Natural Products Inhibit Intracellular Microorganisms Via Cellular Mechanisms||Dr. Jian-Dong Jang|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Discover Drugs and Delivery Systems that Minimize the Likelihood of Drug Resistant Micro-organisms||China||2005||Approved||16.0|
|205||The current vaccine against bacterial pneumonia (pneumococcus) requires a regimen of four injections given at specific intervals. In developing countries, this not only complicates the vaccination process for health workers and children, but it also is a serious obstacle for families who must travel long distances to the nearest health clinic. Dr. Curtiss and his colleagues are working to develop new vaccines against bacterial pneumonia that require only a single dose, can be delivered orally, and are safe for newborns, infants, and people who are malnourished or whose immune systems are compromised.||0-Challenge Grants||Tempe - AZ||North America||Vaccines||Improve Childhood Vaccines||Challenge Grant||7/24/2009 11:21 AM||11/1/2012 10:16 AM||A Live Recombinant Attenuated Salmonella Anti Pneumococcal Vaccine for Newborns||Dr. Roy Curtiss III|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Create Effective Single Dose Vaccines That Can Be Used Soon After Birth||United States||Arizona||2005||Approved||14.0|
|206||To maintain stability and viability, most childhood vaccines must be kept cool – both heat and freezing can ruin them. That means they must be refrigerated at the correct temperature throughout transportation, storage, and delivery. This cold chain is difficult and costly to maintain, especially in developing countries. Dr. Sonenshein and his team are working to create childhood vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (the DTP combination vaccine), and rotavirus-related diarrhea that can withstand a wide range of temperatures without refrigeration by encapsulating them in harmless bacterial spores that are naturally heat-resistant.||0-Challenge Grants||Boston - MA||North America||Vaccines||Improve Childhood Vaccines||Challenge Grant||7/24/2009 11:27 AM||11/1/2012 10:16 AM||Bacterial Spores as Vaccine Delivery Systems||Dr. Abraham L. Sonenshein|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Prepare Vaccines that Do Not Require Refrigeration||United States||Massachusetts||2005||Approved||13.0|
|210||To maintain stability and viability, most childhood vaccines must be kept cool – both heat and freezing can ruin them. That means many must be refrigerated at the correct temperature throughout transportation, storage, and delivery. This cold chain is difficult and costly to maintain, especially in developing countries. Dr. Gardner and his colleagues are adapting high-throughput formulation technology developed by TransForm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. that can quickly screen different formulations of vaccines to identify those that are most likely to be stable, safe, and effective. The team's initial work focuses on reducing refrigeration requirements for the existing live attenuated vaccine for measles, a freeze-dried vaccine that must be stored at between 2° and 8° Celsius and is very sensitive to heat and light once it is reconstituted.||0-Challenge Grants||Lexington - MA||North America||Vaccines||Improve Childhood Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/3/2009 5:47 PM||11/1/2012 10:17 AM||Optimization of Vaccine Stability Through High Throughput Formulation||Dr. Colin R. Gardner|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Prepare Vaccines that Do Not Require Refrigeration||United States||Massachusetts||2005||Approved||13.0|
|211||To maintain stability and viability, most childhood vaccines must be kept cool – both heat and freezing can ruin them. Drs. Sarkari and Coeshott and their colleagues are working to identify Pluronic polymer-based formulations that stabilize vaccines from -10°C to 45°C; Their aim is to develop vaccines that are resistant to freezing and form protective matrices at elevated temperatures. Investigators are evaluating formulations based on Pluronic F127 using vaccines for measles and hepatitis B.||0-Challenge Grants||Boulder - CO||North America||Vaccines||Improve Childhood Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/3/2009 5:53 PM||11/1/2012 10:17 AM||Thermostable Vaccines with Improved Stability at Non Refrigerated Temperatures||Dr. Claire Coeshott|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Prepare Vaccines that Do Not Require Refrigeration||United States||Colorado||2005||Approved||14.0|
|212||In the developing world, infections in the respiratory and intestinal tracts are major causes of sickness and death, especially among children. Vaccine delivery systems that can target respiratory or intestinal mucosal tissue and stimulate immune response there have the potential to be particularly effective against these infections. Dr. Lo's project addresses two needs: the development of vaccine delivery systems that do not require needles and the design of systems that target specific tissues in the body. Using influenza vaccination as a model, Dr. Lo and his team are working to bind vaccine to specially designed molecules that target mucosal tissue.||0-Challenge Grants||Riverside - CA||North America||Vaccines||Improve Childhood Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/3/2009 5:58 PM||11/1/2012 10:17 AM||Development of a Targeted Mucosal Vaccine Delivery Technology||Dr. David Lo|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop Needle-Free Delivery Systems||United States||California||2005||Approved||14.0|
|213||Vaccines that can be delivered without needles have the potential to be simpler to administer and less prone to spreading infection. Dr. Baker's team is developing a new way of preparing vaccines so that they can be given as nasal drops. These nanoemulsion-based vaccines use non-toxic lipid droplets less than 200 nanometers in diameter that are absorbed through the mucosal surfaces of the nostrils. They can be easily produced using an extrusion process available worldwide and are antimicrobial, eliminating the need for preservatives or refrigeration. The team is performing proof-of-concept, feasibility, and toxicology studies for a nanoemulsion-based vaccine for hepatitis B surface antigen. ||0-Challenge Grants||Ann Arbor - MI||North America||Vaccines||Improve Childhood Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/3/2009 6:03 PM||11/1/2012 10:17 AM||Nanoemulsions as Adjuvants for Nasal Spray Vaccines||Dr. James R. Baker|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop Needle-Free Delivery Systems||United States||Michigan||2005||Approved||13.0|
|214||Many serious infections, such as the measles virus, can enter the body through inhalation. Vaccine delivery systems that can target respiratory mucosal tissue and stimulate immune response there have the potential to be particularly effective against these types of infections. Collaborating with an international group that includes the Serum Institute of India (SII), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the University of Colorado, and private companies, Dr. Sievers and his colleagues at Aktiv-Dry, LLC (AD) are developing a dry-powder version of the measles vaccine that can be inhaled through a disposable plastic device.||0-Challenge Grants||Boulder - CO||North America||Vaccines||Improve Childhood Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/3/2009 6:06 PM||11/1/2012 10:17 AM||Needle Free Delivery of Stable, Respirable Powder Vaccine||Dr. Robert E. Sievers|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop Needle-Free Delivery Systems||United States||Colorado||2005||Approved||13.0|
|215||Vaccine delivery systems that target specific areas of the body have the potential to be especially effective against some types of infection. For example, inhaled vaccines may better guard against respiratory diseases, such as tuberculosis, and those that commonly infect the tissues of the nose and throat, such as diphtheria. Dr. Edwards is leading a multidisciplinary team using materials science technologies combined with infectious disease, device, and toxicology expertise to reformulate tuberculosis and diphtheria vaccines into aerosol sprays that can be inhaled. The team's ultimate objective is to develop a cell-based BCG vaccine for tuberculosis and a protein antigen CRM 197 vaccine for diphtheria in the form of novel porous nanoparticle aggregate (PNAP) aerosols.||0-Challenge Grants||Cambridge - MA||North America||Vaccines||Improve Childhood Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/3/2009 6:10 PM||11/1/2012 10:18 AM||Needle Free Vaccination Via Nanoparticle Aerosols||Dr. David Edwards|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop Needle-Free Delivery Systems||United States||Massachusetts||2005||Approved||13.0|
|216||Most vaccines are delivered by injection, which increases the risk that HIV, hepatitis, and other serious diseases may be transmitted by syringes and needles that are not sterile. Dr. Alonso's team is working to develop a new generation of delivery systems that can easily and effectively carry hepatitis B vaccine through the mucosal lining of the nose. In addition, the team is evaluating whether these delivery systems and the vaccine they carry can be freeze-dried into an inhaled powder that could be stored without refrigeration.||0-Challenge Grants||Santiago de Compostela||Europe||Vaccines||Improve Childhood Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/3/2009 6:14 PM||11/1/2012 10:18 AM||Surface Modified Nanostructures as Delivery Vehicles for Transmucosal Vaccination||Dr. Maria J. Alonso|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop Needle-Free Delivery Systems||Spain||2005||Approved||10.0|
|217||To develop new vaccines against some of the world's biggest killers, including HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis, scientists must be able to evaluate promising candidates. Some of the most promising potential vaccines, are made from weakened live versions of the infectious agent. As a result, they cannot be studied in human trials unless researchers can be confident that the weakened vaccines will be safe. Dr. Flavell and his colleagues are working to genetically engineer laboratory mice whose immune systems are similar enough to humans to permit testing of vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect people in the developing world.||0-Challenge Grants||New Haven - CT||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 11:19 AM||11/1/2012 10:18 AM||A Humanized Mouse Model to Evaluate Live Attenuated Vaccine Candidates||Dr. Richard Flavell|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Devise Reliable Tests in Model Systems to Evaluate Live Attenuated Vaccines||United States||Connecticut||2005||Approved||14.0|
|218||Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver diseases, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. Treatment for chronic hepatitis C is often out of financial reach for people in developing countries, and there is no vaccine against the virus. To prepare a human vaccine, investigators need an animal model that can help them screen and prioritize vaccine candidates. Dr. Balling's team, partnering with Dr. Di Santo's group at the Institut Pasteur in France, is working toward the development of mice with livers and immune systems that are similar to those of humans. These animals might be used to test vaccines for HCV, and potentially, other human pathogens.||0-Challenge Grants||Braunschweig||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 11:25 AM||11/1/2012 10:18 AM||Novel Mouse Models for Testing HIV and HCV Vaccines||Dr. Rudi Balling|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Devise Reliable Tests in Model Systems to Evaluate Live Attenuated Vaccines||Germany||2005||Approved||11.0|
|219||Vaccines are urgently needed to slow the spread of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), which together infect an estimated 240 million people, most of them in developing countries. To prepare a human vaccine, investigators need an animal model that can help them screen and prioritize vaccine candidates. Dr. Deng and his colleagues are working to improve techniques for creating mouse models with immune systems and livers that are similar enough to humans to allow testing of potential HIV and HCV vaccines. The team is working to create chimerical mouse models with hematopoietic cells (HSCs) and hepatocytes differentiated from human embryonic stem (hES) cells.||0-Challenge Grants||Beijing||Asia||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 11:27 AM||11/1/2012 10:18 AM||Development of Novel Mouse Models for HIV and HCV Infection||Dr. Hongkui Deng|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Devise Reliable Tests in Model Systems to Evaluate Live Attenuated Vaccines||China||2005||Approved||11.0|
|220||Dr. Hill and his colleagues are exploring a novel approach to enhancing the ability of plasmid DNA, pox, or adenoviral vectored vaccines to stimulate strong immune responses. Building on recent advances in understanding of pattern recognition molecules as well as intracellular signaling pathways, investigators are working to add intracellular adjuvants (molecular signals that have the potential to enhance immunogenicity) to the vaccine vectors. Also being explored is the effect of adding molecules designed to inhibit regulatory pathways that may be limiting protective immune response. The team is focusing on improving vectors for vaccines against malaria, HIV, and tuberculosis.||0-Challenge Grants||Oxford||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 11:34 AM||11/1/2012 10:19 AM||Enhancing the Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Vectored Vaccines||Dr. Adrian Hill|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Solve How to Design Antigens for Effective, Protective Immunity||United Kingdom||2005||Approved||13.0|
|221||Dr. Steinman’s team is developing vaccines that stimulate the immune system’s dendritic cells, which are known to play an important role in stimulating protection against infectious diseases. One approach is to engineer vaccine antigens into monoclonal antibodies against receptors on the surface of dendritic cells. A secondary approach involves engineering genes for the antigens of interest into the yellow fever virus. The project will focus on creating experimental vaccines for a range of diseases, including HIV and malaria. If successful, this technology could identify a better way to create vaccines that stimulate multiple components of the body’s immune response, including those that have been difficult to target with existing vaccine approaches.||0-Challenge Grants||New York - NY||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 11:41 AM||11/1/2012 10:19 AM||Improved Vaccine Efficacy via Dendritic Cells and Flavivirus Vectors||Dr. Ralph M. Steinman|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Solve How to Design Antigens for Effective, Protective Immunity||United States||New York||2005||Approved||14.0|
Dr. Shattock and collaborators in the U.K. and South Africa will attempt to develop an HIV vaccine that stimulates immunity to the virus in the lining of the vagina. The investigators hypothesize that an HIV vaccine will be most effective at the site where the virus enters the body. Innovative combinations of vaccine antigen formulas and delivery technologies will be used to develop a potentially potent and effective vaccine. The vaccine will be designed to be delivered via low-cost vaginal gels or via silicone rings that fit inside the vagina and can be self-administered.
|0-Challenge Grants||London||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 11:44 AM||11/1/2012 10:19 AM||Novel Antigen Design and Delivery for Mucosal Protection Against HIV-1 Infection||Dr. Robin J. Shattock|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Solve How to Design Antigens for Effective, Protective Immunity||United Kingdom||2005||Approved||11.0|
|223||Attenuated vaccines, composed of weakened organisms incapable of causing disease, provide prolonged exposure to antigens and have proven effective against several viral or bacterial diseases. Dr. Kappe’s team is attempting to extend this concept to a malaria vaccine. In the case of malaria, disease develops when the malaria sporozoite – the form of the parasite that is transmitted from mosquitoes to humans – enters the bloodstream and moves to the liver. There, it grows and divides into thousands of parasites that invade and destroy red blood cells, causing disease. Dr. Kappe's team is working toward development of a malaria vaccine using a malaria sporozoite that has been weakened by gene deletion to stimulate immune response.||0-Challenge Grants||Seattle - WA||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 12:58 PM||11/1/2012 10:19 AM||Protective Genetically Attenuated P. Falciparum Sporozoite Vaccine||Dr. Stefan Kappe|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Solve How to Design Antigens for Effective, Protective Immunity||United States||Washington||2005||Approved||14.0|
|224||Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem, especially in developing countries. Dr. Kaufmann is leading an international consortium that is studying differences in immune system responses between people exposed to TB who never become sick and those who develop the disease, focusing particular attention on people infected with both HIV and TB in endemic African countries. The project's participating laboratories in Europe and the United States are attempting to learn which host responses provide protective immunity against TB and to identify correlates of protective immunity and host biomarkers of TB disease that could help guide the design and testing of improved TB vaccines, drugs, and diagnostics.||0-Challenge Grants||Berlin||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 1:03 PM||11/1/2012 10:19 AM||Biomarkers of Protective Immunity Against TB in the Context of HIV/AIDS in Africa||Dr. Stefan Kaufmann|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Learn Which Immunological Responses Provide Protective Immunity||Germany||2005||Approved||11.0|
|225||A subset of women who apparently are resistant to HIV infection may provide scientists with the genetic and immune system information they need to advance vaccine and drug development. Since 1985, investigators have tracked groups of commercial sex workers in Kenya who do not become infected with HIV despite repeatedly having sex without condoms. If investigators can understand what constitutes and results in protective immunity against HIV, they may be able to replicate it through vaccines. Dr. Plummer's team is conducting an exhaustive analysis of the immunologic and genetic factors that mediate HIV resistance in the women, with the goal of gaining a more complete understanding of what constitutes protective immunity against HIV infection.||0-Challenge Grants||Winnipeg||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 1:08 PM||11/1/2012 10:19 AM||Comprehensive Studies of Mechanisms of HIV Resistance in Highly Exposed Uninfected Women||Dr. Francis A. Plummer|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Learn Which Immunological Responses Provide Protective Immunity||Canada||2005||Approved||11.0|
|226||Acute respiratory infections, often due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), are a primary cause of death in young children in developing countries. A new vaccine effectively prevents the most serious form of pneumococcal disease and also reduces nasopharyngeal colonization with pneumococci. Because only some people who are infected become ill, researchers must study tens of thousands of vaccinated individuals over a long period of time to determine whether the vaccine guards against disease. Dr. Käyhty is leading an international consortium of investigators whose goal is to establish a quick and inexpensive method of determining the efficacy and expected effectiveness of the pneumonia vaccine.||0-Challenge Grants||Helsinki||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 1:10 PM||11/1/2012 10:20 AM||Immunity to Prevent Pneumococcal Transmission: Correlates of Protection and Herd Immunity||Dr. Helena Käyhty|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Learn Which Immunological Responses Provide Protective Immunity||Finland||2005||Approved||12.0|
|227||Due to differences in their immune systems, individuals respond to malaria in different ways. While some die, others survive, and still others are infected without becoming ill. Understanding how and why some people naturally resist malaria may help lead to the development of an effective vaccine against the disease. Dr. Kwiatkowski is leading the Malaria Genomic Epidemiology Network, or MalariaGEN, an international partnership of malaria research groups. MalariaGEN partners in 20 countries, including in 14 countries where malaria is endemic, are combining genomic technology with large-scale epidemiological analyses to identify mechanisms of protective immunity against malaria in humans. Their ultimate goal is to guide the development of tools and markers to facilitate the design and testing of vaccines against malaria.||0-Challenge Grants||Oxford||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 1:13 PM||11/1/2012 10:20 AM||Learning From the Human Genome How Protective Immunity Against Malaria Works||Dr. Dominic P. Kwiatkowski|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Learn Which Immunological Responses Provide Protective Immunity||United Kingdom||2005||Approved||11.0|
|228||Dr. Shaw is leading a consortium of investigators from clinical and laboratory research sites in Africa, the Caribbean, and the United States. They are conducting a comprehensive, integrated analysis of humoral and cellular responses to HIV-1 in people in early and acute stages of infection. Investigators are basing their work on the hypothesis that HIV-1 leads to chronic, persistent infection rather than a rapidly lethal disease because elements of the human immune system partially constrain viral replication over long periods. Ultimately, the project's goal is to contribute to the development of vaccines for HIV and AIDS through better understanding of natural immune response to the virus.||0-Challenge Grants||Birmingham - AL||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 1:16 PM||11/1/2012 10:20 AM||Molecular Analysis and Modeling of HIV 1 Transmission, Containment, and Escape||Dr. George Shaw|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Learn Which Immunological Responses Provide Protective Immunity||United States||Alabama||2005||Approved||12.0|
|229||More than a million people die of malaria each year — most of them infants, young children, and pregnant women, and most of them in Africa. Although severe malaria has a high mortality rate, some children in areas where the disease is endemic might experience only one or two episodes of severe illness before they become resistant to further bouts of the disease. Dr. Duffy's team is attempting to identify the antibodies and other immunological responses that protect children from severe illness and death due to the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly of the four parasite species of human malaria.||0-Challenge Grants||Seattle - WA||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 1:19 PM||11/1/2012 10:20 AM||Protective Immunity Against Severe Malaria in Young Children||Dr. Patrick E. Duffy|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Learn Which Immunological Responses Provide Protective Immunity||United States||Washington||2005||Approved||13.0|
|230||Dr. Fraser's team is working to develop and test new approaches to suppressing the replication of dengue virus in the cells of its primary vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The team is using genetic strategies to introduce a molecular mechanism that uses the dengue virus' own genetic make-up to initiate a process that results in the death of infected cells in the mosquitoes, limiting their ability to transmit disease. In addition, investigators are working on tools to enhance the application of this and other genetic strategies in mosquitoes.||0-Challenge Grants||Notre Dame - IN||North America||Vectors||Control Insect Vectors||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 1:50 PM||11/1/2012 10:20 AM||Developing Coupled Transgenic Ribozyme and Insecticide Resistance Approaches to Establishing Dengue Virus Refractoriness in Natural Populations of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes||Dr. Malcolm J. Fraser|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop a Biological Strategy to Deplete or Incapacitate a Disease-transmitting Insect Population||United States||Indiana||2005||Approved||13.0|
|231||Approaches to controlling disease-carrying insects might include inhibiting the development of virus in the mosquito or altering the insects' lifespan so that they die before they can transmit disease. A major challenge to this approach, however, is ensuring that such strategies are effective, safe, and socially and environmentally acceptable. Dr. James is leading an international team of scientists that is seeking to develop methods of controlling the transmission of dengue viruses using genetic techniques, including those that may block virus transmission by mosquitoes and reduce or eliminate populations of mosquitoes that transmit the virus.||0-Challenge Grants||Irvine - CA||North America||Vectors||Control Insect Vectors||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 1:54 PM||11/1/2012 10:21 AM||Genetic Strategies for Control of Dengue Virus Transmission||Dr. Anthony A. James|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop a Biological Strategy to Deplete or Incapacitate a Disease-transmitting Insect Population||United States||California||2005||Approved||12.0|
|232||The inability to ensure that newly introduced genes will become established within regional mosquito populations has been a major roadblock to the advancement of genetic strategies for vector control. Dr. Burt and his colleagues are investigating homing endonuclease genes (HEGs), so-called "parasitic" genes that can spread rapidly through mosquito populations even if they harm the host insect. This gives HEGs the potential to move newly introduced traits, such as sterility or inability to transmit disease, through a population quickly. The project's ultimate goal is to develop HEGs as a flexible, robust, powerful, and safe system to drive useful traits through populations of mosquitoes that transmit malaria.||0-Challenge Grants||London||Europe||Vectors||Control Insect Vectors||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 1:59 PM||11/1/2012 10:21 AM||Homing Endonuclease Genes: New Tools for Mosquito Population Engineering and Control||Dr. Austin Burt|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop a Biological Strategy to Deplete or Incapacitate a Disease-transmitting Insect Population||United Kingdom||2005||Approved||10.0|
|233||Scientists have long known that only relatively old mosquitoes can transmit the agents that cause certain diseases, including dengue fever and malaria. Dr. O’Neill and his multinational team are working on a plan to shorten the lifespan of mosquitoes that transmit the dengue virus, which infects up to 100 million people each year. They are introducing into populations of Aedes mosquitoes, strains of a naturally occurring bacterial symbiont, Wolbachia, that kill infected insects before they are old enough to transmit disease. Wolbachia are inherited though the eggs of the mosquitoes and so are passed on from generation to generation.||0-Challenge Grants||Brisbane - Queensland||Oceania||Vectors||Control Insect Vectors||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 2:02 PM||11/1/2012 10:21 AM||Modifying Mosquito Population Age Structure to Eliminate Dengue Transmission||Dr. Scott O'Neill|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop a Biological Strategy to Deplete or Incapacitate a Disease-transmitting Insect Population||Australia||2005||Approved||14.0|
|234||Mosquitoes that spread malaria parasites use their sense of smell to find human hosts. Dr. Zwiebel is leading an international consortium of investigators that seeks to understand and ultimately interfere with the molecular basis of the insects' sense of smell. Their work seeks to develop safe, effective and low-cost products that would either repel mosquitoes or attract them to traps.||0-Challenge Grants||Nashville - TN||North America||Vectors||Control Insect Vectors||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 2:15 PM||11/1/2012 10:21 AM||Disruption of Malaria Transmission by Chemical Manipulation of Anopheline Olfactory Responses||Dr. Laurence J. Zwiebel|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop a Chemical Strategy to Deplete or Incapacitate a Disease-transmitting Insect Population||United States||Tennessee||2005||Approved||11.0|
|235||Efforts to control the spread of malaria face serious challenges, including the parasite’s increased resistance to both medications and insecticides and environmental concerns about the use of traditional insecticides. Mosquitoes that spread malaria parasites use their sense of smell to find human hosts, most often by cueing in on the scent of human sweat and the carbon dioxide present in breath. Drs. Axel and Vosshall and their colleagues are seeking to develop a new generation of insect repellents that work by disrupting the olfactory system of the Anopheles mosquito, the primary vector in Africa.||0-Challenge Grants||New York - NY||North America||Vectors||Control Insect Vectors||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 2:17 PM||11/1/2012 10:21 AM||Molecular Approaches to Alter Olfactory Driven Behaviors of Insect Disease Vectors||Dr. Richard Axel|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop a Chemical Strategy to Deplete or Incapacitate a Disease-transmitting Insect Population||United States||New York||2005||Approved||12.0|
|236||The malaria parasites’ increased resistance to both medications and insecticides and environmental concerns about the use of traditional insecticides pose major challenges to decreasing the rate and breadth of infection. Dr. Bloomquist and his colleagues are using advanced molecular modeling and a novel chemical synthesis method called "click chemistry" in an effort to produce insecticides specifically targeted to the primary malaria vector mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae. The insecticides would work by inhibiting the essential enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in mosquitoes. They could be used as a potentially safer and more effective alternative to existing insecticides used in treating bed nets.||0-Challenge Grants||Blacksburg - VA||North America||Vectors||Control Insect Vectors||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 2:22 PM||11/1/2012 10:21 AM||Molecular Design of Selective Anticholinesterases for Mosquito Control||Dr. Jeff Bloomquist|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop a Chemical Strategy to Deplete or Incapacitate a Disease-transmitting Insect Population||United States||Virginia||2005||Approved||12.0|
|237||Bananas are the major staple food in Uganda, where the average person consumes more than 1 kilogram of the fruit each day. Banana-based diets, however, are deficient in vitamin A and iron, as well as in vitamin E. A promising long-term solution to this problem may be to genetically modify crops, including bananas, so that they contain high levels of essential nutrients. Dr. Dale is leading a team of scientists in Australia, Uganda, and the United States who are attempting to genetically modify bananas raised in Uganda so that their content of vitamin A, vitamin E, and iron is equal to or exceeds the required daily allowance.||0-Challenge Grants||Brisbane - Queensland||Oceania||Nutrition||Improve Nutrition||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 2:25 PM||11/1/2012 10:21 AM||Optimisation of Bioavailable Nutrients in Transgenic Bananas||Dr. James L. Dale|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Create a Full Range of Optimal, Bioavailable Nutrients in a Single Staple Plant Species||Australia||2005||Approved||12.0|
|238||Poor nutrition is a major global health problem, contributing to half of the nearly 10 million deaths that occur each year in children younger than 5 and much of the death disease and suffering impacting sub-Saharan Africa. A starchy root crop called cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Africans in this region, but cassava has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any staple crop. Dr. Sayre is leading a multidisciplinary team of scientists, brought together as BioCassava Plus, that is working to create nutritious cassava for sub-Saharan Africa. Team members are screening additional transgenic plants and expect that complimentary genetic strategies currently underway will soon yield plants that achieve their targeted levels of iron, zinc, and protein.||0-Challenge Grants||Columbus - OH||North America||Nutrition||Improve Nutrition||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 2:27 PM||11/1/2012 10:22 AM||Improving Cassava for Nutrition, Health, and Sustainable Development||Dr. Richard T. Sayre|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Create a Full Range of Optimal, Bioavailable Nutrients in a Single Staple Plant Species||United States||Ohio||2005||Approved||12.0|
|239||Although rice is a primary source of food for much of the world’s population, it is a poor source of many essential micronutrients, as well as protein. As a result, widespread reliance on rice is the primary cause of micronutrient malnutrition throughout much of the developing world. Dr. Beyer is leading an international, collaborative effort called the ProVitaMinRice Consortium. The consortium's members are developing new varieties of rice with increased levels or bioavailability of pro-vitamin A, vitamin E, iron, and zinc as well improved protein quality and content. As their platform, the consortium's researchers are using Golden Rice, which has been genetically engineered to produce and accumulate pro-vitamin A in the grain, and are working with novel transgene-based technologies to enhance the availability of the target nutrients.||0-Challenge Grants||Freiburg||Europe||Nutrition||Improve Nutrition||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 2:31 PM||11/1/2012 10:22 AM||Engineering Rice for High Beta Carotene, Vitamin E and Enhanced Fe and Zn Bioavailability||Dr. Peter Beyer|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Create a Full Range of Optimal, Bioavailable Nutrients in a Single Staple Plant Species||Germany||2005||Approved||13.0|
|240||More than 300 million people in arid and semi-arid regions of Africa rely on sorghum as their primary source of food. The grain is one of the few crops that grow well in arid climates, but it is deficient in most essential nutrients and is difficult to digest. The African Bio-fortified Sorghum (ABS) Project, a consortium of nine institutions led by Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International, is working to develop new varieties of sorghum that are easier to digest and contain higher levels of vitamins A and E, iron, zinc, and the essential amino acids lysine, threonine, and tryptophan.||0-Challenge Grants||Nairobi||Africa||Nutrition||Improve Nutrition||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 2:33 PM||11/1/2012 10:22 AM||Nutritionally Enhanced Sorghum for the Arid and Semi Arid Tropical Areas of Africa||Dr. Paul Anderson|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Create a Full Range of Optimal, Bioavailable Nutrients in a Single Staple Plant Species||Kenya||2005||Approved||10.0|
|242||Dr. Finlay's team is investigating a new approach to treating bacterial and parasitic infections by enhancing the body's innate defense mechanisms. By acting on the cells of the immune system rather than on the disease-causing microbe directly, investigators expect to lessen the risk of developing drug-resistant organisms and the potential for broad-spectrum activity. The project team is focusing on a number of bacterial and parasitic pathogens, including enteric bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Plasmodium falciparum.||0-Challenge Grants||Vancouver - BC||North America||Drugs||Limit Drug Resistance||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 2:43 PM||11/1/2012 10:22 AM||Novel Therapeutics that Boost Innate Immunity to Treat Infectious Diseases||Dr. Brett Finlay|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Discover Drugs and Delivery Systems that Minimize the Likelihood of Drug Resistant Micro-organisms||Canada||2005||Approved||12.0|
|243||An estimated 2 billion individuals—a third of the world's population—have been exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and carry the infection in its latent form, retaining a lifelong risk of developing TB disease. Programs to control tuberculosis now focus on childhood vaccination and treatment for people with active disease. Reversing TB's spread, however, requires an intervention that will prevent disease in those who are already infected. The lack of knowledge about the biology of latent TB infection stands in the way of the development of such an intervention. Dr. Young is leading an international team of researchers from the U.K., U.S., Singapore, Korea, and Mexico that is attempting to further elucidate the fundamental biology of latency and use this knowledge to develop drugs against latent TB.||0-Challenge Grants||London||Europe||Drugs||Cure Infection||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 3:03 PM||11/1/2012 10:22 AM||Drugs for Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection||Dr. Douglas Young|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Create Therapies that Can Cure Latent Infection||United Kingdom||2005||Approved||11.0|
|244||Dr. Baltimore’s team is exploring a new way of stimulating the immune system to fight infectious diseases, focusing on HIV. The premise of this project is that for some infections, including HIV, the immune system’s natural responses are inherently inadequate, and the traditional approach of using vaccines to stimulate and boost these responses is likely to be ineffective. As an alternative, Dr. Baltimore and his colleagues propose to "engineer immunity," that is, use genetic engineering methods to produce immune cells that will make specific antibodies to fight off infection.||0-Challenge Grants||Pasadena - CA||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 3:07 PM||11/1/2012 10:23 AM||Engineering Immunity Against HIV and other Dangerous Pathogens||Dr. David Baltimore|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Create Immunological Methods that can Cure Chronic Infections||United States||California||2005||Approved||13.0|
|245||People infected with many serious illnesses, including tuberculosis and hepatitis C, may show no symptoms of disease for long periods of time. These inactive, or "latent," infections, however, can develop into active disease without warning, and also can be passed on to others. New approaches that focus on controlling or stimulating the immune system to cure latent infections or prevent them from causing disease have the potential to significantly reduce illness, death, and disease transmission. Dr. Ahmed and his team are working to create safe and effective immunological therapies for chronic hepatitis C infection and other viral infections such as HIV by developing methods to reactivate “exhausted” immune cells that are thought be unable to clear the infection.||0-Challenge Grants||Atlanta - GA||North America||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 3:09 PM||11/1/2012 10:23 AM||Immunological Strategies for Curing Chronic Hepatitis Virus Infections||Dr. Rafi Ahmed|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Create Immunological Methods that can Cure Chronic Infections||United States||Georgia||2005||Approved||12.0|
|246||Each year, about a half-million women, 80 percent of them living in low-income countries, develop cancer of the cervix. The disease kills 250,000 women annually, and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women living in less developed countries. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract. Dr. Garcea's team is working to develop an inexpensive therapeutic vaccine against HPV that will not only protect people from developing new infections, but could potentially trigger an immune system response to cure those who are already infected.||0-Challenge Grants||Aurora - CO||North America||Vaccines||Cure Infection||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 3:11 PM||11/1/2012 10:23 AM||Novel Therapeutic Vaccines for Acute and Persistent Papillomavirus Infections||Dr. Robert Garcea|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Create Immunological Methods that can Cure Chronic Infections||United States||Colorado||2005||Approved||11.0|
|247||To stop the spread of tuberculosis, scientists are working to develop methods that prevent new infections and also eliminate infection in the huge reservoir of people who already are infected with MTB. New approaches that focus on controlling or stimulating the immune system to cure latent infections or prevent MTB from causing disease have the potential to significantly reduce illness, death, and disease transmission. Dr. Andersen’s is leading a collaborative team of international researchers who are studying Mycobacterium tuberculosis to identify the mechanisms that, in some people, allow it to escape natural immune system responses. The project's ultimate goal is to develop vaccines that target latent TB, either before or after an individual is infected.||0-Challenge Grants||Copenhagen||Europe||New Hypothesis||Cure Infection||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 3:13 PM||11/1/2012 10:23 AM||Preclinical and Clinical Evaluation of a Post Exposure TB Vaccine||Dr. Peter Andersen|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Create Immunological Methods that can Cure Chronic Infections||Denmark||2005||Approved||12.0|
|248||In the developing world, major gaps in methods and technologies to measure health status make it difficult to address inequities in health through changes in policy. Dr. Murray is leading an international team of investigators that is working to develop new technologies and methods for assessing health status in the developing world. Combining epidemiology, biomedical research, and population health assessment, the team hopes to produce new measurement tools that are science-based, standardized, and applicable to different resource-poor settings.||0-Challenge Grants||Seattle - WA||North America||Research Tool||Measure Health Status||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 3:15 PM||11/1/2012 10:24 AM||Population Health Metrics Research Consortium Project||Dr. Christopher Murray|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop Technologies that Permit Quantitative Assessment of Population Health Status||United States||Washington||2005||Approved||13.0|
In the developing world, lack of convenient and accurate tools that can detect and diagnose diseases and other health problems means that many health risks remain undetected or receive inappropriate treatment. Dr. Yager's team, in collaboration with research groups from private industry as well as the nonprofit sector, is working to develop a low-cost, easy-to-use device that will rapidly test blood for a range of health problems prevalent in developing countries, such as bacterial infections, nutritional status, and HIV-related illnesses.
|0-Challenge Grants||Seattle - WA||North America||Research Tool||Measure Health Status||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 3:24 PM||11/1/2012 10:24 AM||A Point of Care Diagnostic System for the Developing World||Dr. Paul Yager|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop Technologies that Allow Assessment of Multiple Conditions and Pathogens at Point-of-Care||United States||Washington||2005||Approved||17.0|
|250||In the developing world, many people with health problems never receive an accurate diagnosis or appropriate treatment because clinicians lack tools to detect and diagnose diseases and conditions quickly, accurately, and inexpensively. Sophisticated medical tests that could help improve care are not only often unaffordable, they require extensive laboratory facilities and deliver results days later – a hardship for people who may live many miles from the nearest health clinic. Dr. Kelso's team is developing rapid, affordable, point-of-care systems for both immunological and molecular tests. The project's objective is to design low-cost delivery platforms that can perform assays in resource-poor settings.||0-Challenge Grants||Evanston - IL||North America||Research Tool||Measure Health Status||Challenge Grant||8/4/2009 3:32 PM||11/1/2012 10:24 AM||Integrated Rapid Test Platforms Appropriate for the Developing World||Dr. David Kelso|
|none||Grand Challenges Grants – May 2005||Develop Technologies that Allow Assessment of Multiple Conditions and Pathogens at Point-of-Care||United States||Illinois||2005||Approved||16.0|
|251||Udantha Abeyratne of the University of Queensland in Australia proposes using low-cost devices such as mobile phones and mp3 players equipped with microphones to record cough and sleeping sounds that do not require direct contact with the patient. Recording will be analyzed using new algorithms in human speech analysis to identify sounds that characterize the presence of pneumonia. ||Udantha Abeyratne||3||Brisbane - Queensland||Oceania||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/8/2009 3:41 PM||3/21/2012 2:52 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx|
|253||Krystal Evans of The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Australia will knock out several proteins that support the expression of the major virulence factor for the malaria parasite. Their aim is create a genetically-attenuated live malaria vaccine that elicits a strong immune response against diverse strains of the parasite.||Krystal Evans||3||Melbourne||Oceania||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/12/2009 8:30 AM||3/21/2012 2:52 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Australia||2009||Approved||7.0|
|254||Ronald Quinn of Griffith University's Eskitis Institute in Australia and colleagues are seeking to discover chemical fragments drawn from a variety of natural sources that bind to proteins expressed by the malaria parasite in its latent stage and the tuberculosis microorganism. In their Phase I and Phase II research, the team is working on identifying compounds that target proteins involved in key metabolic and energy pathways of latency as the basis for new drug therapies.||Ronald Quinn||3||Brisbane - Queensland||Oceania||Drugs||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 9:20 AM||7/12/2012 11:24 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx|
|255||Paul Gilson of Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health in Australia will study the function of a newly discovered malaria parasite mechanism that exports proteins into host red blood cells in an effort to develop compounds that block this transfer and inhibit parasite growth.||Paul Gilson||3||Melbourne||Oceania||Drugs||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 9:41 AM||3/21/2012 2:52 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Australia||2009||Approved||3.0|
|257||Stephen Kent and John Stambas of the University of Melbourne in Australia will develop and test an attenuated influenza virus vector with an adjuvant that stimulates natural killer cells. The goal of this approach is to induce robust immunity at mucosal surfaces to HIV, which is important in both prevention and control of infection.||Stephen Kent||3||Melbourne||Oceania||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/12/2009 9:53 AM||3/21/2012 2:52 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Australia||2009||Approved||3.0|
|258||Viktor Vegh of The University of Queensland in Australia will test the efficacy of using low-cost nuclear magnetic resonance technologies that take advantage of earth’s magnetic field to detect malaria parasites. The team will examine blood samples to detect hemozoin, a waste product of malarial parasites, to determine the presence of malaria infection||Viktor Vegh||3||Brisbane - Queensland||Oceania||Diagnostics||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 9:54 AM||3/21/2012 2:52 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Australia||2009||Approved||3.0|
|259||Jackie Obey of the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton in Kenya will test the efficacy of a diagnostic test for malaria in which small amounts of blood are mixed with an iron solution to create vibrant colors that indicate the amount of a protein released by the malaria parasite.||Jackie Obey||3||Eldoret||Africa||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/12/2009 9:58 AM||3/21/2012 2:52 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Kenya||2009||Approved||6.0|
|260||Peter Lubega Yiga of AdhocWorks Foundation in South Africa will test the efficacy of small household containers in which a non-toxic formulation is mixed with water, releasing carbon dioxide and alcohol vapors as a way to repel mosquitos. The investigators will test the device in independent field trials to optimize its usefulness as an alternative to insecticides. ||Peter Lubega Yiga||3||Johannesburg||Africa||Vectors||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 10:13 AM||3/21/2012 2:52 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||South Africa||2009||Approved||4.0|
|261||Margaret Njoroge and Thomas Egwang of Med Biotech Laboratories in Uganda will develop and test an intranasal vaccine to be administered to young women before pregnancy, and again after childbirth, to confer anti-malarial immunity in their babies.||Margaret Njoroge||3||Kampala||Africa||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/12/2009 10:28 AM||3/21/2012 2:52 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Uganda||2009||Approved||4.0|
|262||Sungano Mharakurwa of the Malaria Institute in Zambia proposes to take advantage of the “off-season” in regions affected by malaria. The team will identify asymptomatic carriers of the malaria parasite using a simple, non-invasive diagnostic tool using saliva samples which can be easily used by village community workers. Those individuals will be treated to eliminate the parasite before it can be transmitted during the rainy season, when malaria cases increase.||Sungano Mharakurwa||3||Choma||Africa||New Hypothesis||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 10:42 AM||3/21/2012 2:52 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Zambia||2009||Approved||3.0|
|263||Rajan George of Paladin Biosciences, a division of Paladin Labs Inc. in Canada will produce a vaccine with multiple malaria antigens to target dendritic cell receptors and without the need for an adjuvant, in an effort to induce both antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to the malaria parasite at various stages of the infection. ||Rajan George||3||Edmonton||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/12/2009 10:48 AM||3/21/2012 2:52 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Canada||2009||Approved||4.0|
|264||Hongshen Ma of the University of British Columbia in Canada will develop an inexpensive hand-held device consisting of a series of funnels of decreasing size that will separate healthy red-blood cells, which can easily squeeze through openings, from malaria-parasite infected blood cells which become more rigid. A simple integrated optical sensor would then count stained cells in these various stages to determine the state of infection and inform treatment options. ||Hongshen Ma||3||Vancouver - BC||North America||Diagnostics||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 10:53 AM||3/21/2012 2:52 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Canada||2009||Approved||2.0|
|265||Michel Gilbert of the National Research Council Canada will use the single-celled microorganism T. acidophilum to produce HIV proteins with unique sugar residues found only in archaebacteria such as T. acidophilum. By modifying these glycan structures to ones not recognized by humans, Gilbert hopes to elicit a stronger immune response against the virus.||Michel Gilbert||3||Ottawa||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/12/2009 10:55 AM||3/21/2012 2:52 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Canada||2009||Approved||2.0|
|266||Lourival Possani of the Institute of Biotechnology at the National University of Mexico will investigate the antimalarial effects of scorpine, a newly identified peptide found in the venom of scorpions. The team will test scorpine’s efficacy in blocking K+ channels used by malaria parasites to replicate in mosquitoes. Creating a new generation of malaria-resistant mosquitoes can aid in the eradication of the disease in humans.||Lourival Possani||3||Cuernavaca - Morelos||North America||Drugs||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 10:59 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Mexico||2009||Approved||3.0|
|267||Kailash Patra of the University of California, San Diego in the U.S. will use proteomics to examine gametocyte, zygote, or ookinete surface proteins of the malaria parasite to test their reactivity to human serum collected from malaria endemic regions, and to identify new antigen candidates for malaria vaccines. ||Kailash Patra||3||San Diego - CA||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/12/2009 11:02 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||3.0|
|268||Moriya Tsuji of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center in the U.S. will test whether the human malaria parasite can infect mice engineered with humanized livers and red blood cells by producing human erythropoietin. The goal of this project is part of a larger effort to create a mouse model capable of supporting the full malaria life cycle for use in preclinical testing of new anti-malarial therapies and vaccines. ||Moriya Tsuji||3||New York - NY||North America||Research Tool||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 11:04 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2009||Approved||3.0|
|269||Victor Nussenzweig of the New York University School of Medicine in the U.S. seeks to develop a small molecule drugs to inhibit key kinase enzymes in the malaria parasite that are thought to control latency in parasite infections. Such fundamental knowledge may enable new tools to clear the latent forms of P. vivax parasites or block transmission of the disease by targeting sporozoites.||Victor Nussenzweig||3||New York - NY||North America||Drugs||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 11:06 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2009||Approved||3.0|
|270||David Wright of Vanderbilt University in the U.S. will develop a new low-cost diagnostic tool in which a droplet of malaria-infected blood deposited on a glass slide will, based on fluid dynamics, leave a ring-like pattern as the blood evaporates. The slide will be prepared with a solution that will interact with a particular protein of the malaria parasite to visualize this "coffee ring stain," allowing for easy interpretation and ready diagnosis. ||David Wright||3||Nashville - TN||North America||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/12/2009 11:08 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Tennessee||2009||Approved||4.0|
|271||Nirbhay Kumar of Johns Hopkins University in the U.S. will use a technique called codon harmonization to fully and correctly express a complex malaria gamete surface protein. The sexual stages of malaria parasites have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to antibody targeting. This approach may be able to block the transmission of malaria in insect vectors.||Nirbhay Kumar||3||Baltimore - MD||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/12/2009 12:54 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Maryland||2009||Approved||3.0|
|272||Kate Edwards of University of Sydney in Sydney, Australia will test the theory that brief bouts of exercise consisting of cycling and weight lifting will increase antibody and cell-mediated responses to a pneumococcal vaccination administered immediately after the physical activity.||Kate Edwards||3||Sydney||Oceania||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/12/2009 12:57 PM||4/25/2012 1:47 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Australia||2009||Approved||6.0|
|273||Paul Kim of Johns Hopkins University in the U.S. will modify HIV by removing the viral genome and replacing the outer domain of the gp120 protein, used by the virus to invade host immune cells, with receptors normally used by gp120 to bind to host cells. When this modified ghost virus encounters native HIV during an infection, hidden epitopes are exposed to the host immune system, stimulating antibodies to clear the infection.||Paul Kim||3||Baltimore - MD||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/12/2009 12:58 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Maryland||2009||Approved||3.0|
|274||Matthias Marti of the Harvard School of Public Health in the U.S. will utilize a newly developed transgenic malaria parasite that expresses GFP indicating when the parasites are ready to be transmitted to mosquitoes. He will use this technology to screen for compounds that can prevent the development of these gametocytes.||Matthias Marti||3||Boston - MA||North America||Drugs||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 1:24 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||3.0|
|275||Michael Leibowitz of the UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in the U.S. will investigate whether malaria parasites bind to, invade and replicate in the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels to test the theory that endothelial cells play an important role in the development of malaria infection and may serve as undiscovered reservoirs for parasite latency. ||Michael Leibowitz||3||Piscataway - NJ||North America||New Hypothesis||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 1:27 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||New Jersey||2009||Approved||6.0|
|276||Madhu Malo of Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School in the U.S. will investigate whether maintaining the normal intestinal commensal bacteria using oral supplementation of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a small intestinal brush-border enzyme, will prevent or cure infection by pathogenic bacteria. A successful project would generate a universal prophylactic and therapeutic strategy against diarrheal diseases. ||Madhu Malo||3||Boston - MA||North America||Alternative Treatment||Mucosal immunity||10/12/2009 1:29 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||4.0|
|277||Richard Sayre of Donald Danforth Plant Science Center in the U.S. will develop and test a transgenic algae that delivers interference RNA (RNAi) elements to mosquito larvae when they feed on it. These RNAi will silence essential genes used by the larvae to develop, thus killing mosquitoes before they can transmit malaria.||Richard Sayre||3||St. Louis - MO||North America||Vectors||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 1:35 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Missouri||2009||Approved||3.0|
|278||Sangeeta Joshi of the Middaugh laboratory at the University of Kansas in the U.S. will develop a novel polymer vaccine composed of assembled versions of “needle” and “tip” surface proteins used by Shigella and Salmonella pathogens to trigger bacterial invasion in human intestinal cells, and test it for its ability to induce antibody response. ||Sangeeta Joshi||3||Lawrence - KS||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Vaccines||10/12/2009 1:38 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Kansas||2009||Approved||5.0|
|279||Scott Phillips, of Pennsylvania State University in the U.S. proposes to develop a polymer reagent to be deposited at the bottom of a small paper cup used to collect a sputum sample, where it will detect proteins secreted by tuberculosis and turn indicate TB-positive samples by changing color.||Scott Phillips||3||University Park - PA||North America||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/12/2009 1:40 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Pennsylvania||2009||Approved||3.0|
|280||Jennifer Maynard and Nicholas Peppas of the University of Texas at Austin in the U.S. seeks to engineer proteins to be delivered by oral polymeric vaccine that specifically bind to receptors of M cells on the gut mucosa. By targeting these M cells, antigens can be introduced directly to the mucosal system, inducing a targeted, stronger immune response.||Jennifer Maynard||3||Austin - TX||North America||Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||10/12/2009 1:54 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Texas||2009||Approved||4.0|
|281||Andrew Fung, Jack Judy and Theodore Moore at the University of California, Los Angeles in the U.S., along with Michel Bergeron of l’Université Laval in Canada, will work to identify molecular markers of malaria present in saliva in order to develop a chewing gum diagnostic tool called “MALiVA.” During chewing, particles in the gum will react with these malaria proteins, which can be detected and characterized when this device is scanned with a magnet. ||Andrew Fung||3||Los Angeles - CA||North America||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/12/2009 1:56 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||5.0|
|282||Wei Lu of the University of Michigan in the U.S. will test the theory that red blood cells infected with malaria have significantly different characteristics when subjected to light in ultra-far infrared spectrum. Using these techniques, this project aims to develop a non-invasive tool to scan capillaries near the body surface and diagnose malaria.||Wei Lu||3||Ann Arbor - MI||North America||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/12/2009 1:58 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Michigan||2009||Approved||3.0|
|283||Because HIV infection activates endogenous retroviruses (ERV) in human cells, which are naturally dormant, Jonah Sacha of the University of Wisconsin in the U.S. will target T-cells against these ERV antigens. If true, new host-directed vaccines could be developed to eliminate HIV infected cells.||Jonah Sacha||3||Madison - WI||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/12/2009 1:59 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Wisconsin||2009||Approved||3.0|
|284||Changhuei Yang of the California Institute of Technology in the U.S. will evaluate the feasibility of using a "microscope on a chip" along with a hand-held reader to detect and analyze cells and parasites in bodily fluids. If successful; this technology, which does not use traditional lenses, could provide diagnostic capabilities for a wide range of diseases including malaria. ||Changhuei Yang||3||Pasadena - CA||North America||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/12/2009 2:20 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||5.0|
|285||Ifor Williams of Emory University School of Medicine in the U.S. will test the theory that a newly characterized cytokine that triggers the development of M cells can be used as an adjuvant to boost immunity in mucosal surfaces and lead to greater uptake of vaccines.||Ifor Williams||3||Atlanta - GA||North America||Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||10/12/2009 2:24 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Georgia||2009||Approved||3.0|
|286||Joseph Vinetz of the University of California, San Diego in the U.S. will attempt to create a new mouse model that mimics both human liver and blood cell function. These new mouse models should allow human malaria parasites to complete their full life cycle in the models and provide a new tool for testing anti-malarial strategies, including drugs and vaccines.||Joseph Vinetz||3||La Jolla - CA||North America||Research Tool||Malaria eradication||10/12/2009 2:26 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||3.0|
|287||Vijay Pancholi of The Ohio State University Research Foundation in the U.S. will attempt to attenuate the S. pneumonia bacteria by altering export of the GAPDH enzyme, a function thought to be essential to the bacteria’s survival. Preventing export of this key enzyme will decrease bacterial virulence, allowing the attenuated strain to be used for development an affordable live vaccine for pneumococcal pneumonia.||Vijay Pancholi||3||Columbus - OH||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/12/2009 2:28 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Ohio||2009||Approved||4.0|
|288||David Schwartz of Hackensack University Medical Center in the U.S. will test an intradermal injection that increases levels of vitamin A and blocks vitamin D3 metabolism. These important mechanisms can “educate” B cells to home to the gut and to make mucosal antibodies against many viruses, including HIV.||David Schwartz||3||Hackensack - NJ||North America||Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||10/12/2009 2:29 PM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||United States||New Jersey||2009||Approved||4.0|
|289||Martin Blaser of the New York University School of Medicine in the U.S. proposes to engineer a harmless modification of H. pylori, a bacteria commonly found in the human stomach, to deliver antigens to protect against intestinal pathogens such as cholera and campylobacter. This modified H. pylori can only survive in the presence of an enzyme supplied in special drinking water, allowing those administering the vaccine to regulate its colonization.||Martin Blaser||3||New York - NY||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/13/2009 7:30 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2009||Approved||3.0|
|290||Daniel Fletcher of the University of California, Berkeley in the U.S. will develop a microscope that attaches to cell phones to capture high-contrast fluorescent images of malaria parasites. Custom software on the phone will automatically count the parasite load, with results and patient information wirelessly transmitted to clinical centers for tracking.||Daniel Fletcher||3||Berkeley - CA||North America||Diagnostics||Malaria eradication||10/13/2009 7:36 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||3.0|
|291||Jinhee Lee and Gary Ostroff of the University of Massachusetts Medical School in the U.S. will test the idea of delivering small interfering RNA (siRNAs) via glucan particles in an oral TB vaccine formulation. The team will utilize the siRNAs’ ability to block immunosuppressive signaling and amplify the immune response.||Jinhee Lee||3||Worchester - MA||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/13/2009 7:40 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||4.0|
|292||Michael Riehle of the University of Arizona in the U.S. will manipulate insulin signaling in mosquito tissues to create a new breed of mosquito that has a shorter lifespan, yet has increased fertility. Because only older mosquitoes can transmit the malaria parasite, the team hopes these fertile, short-lived mosquitoes will replace longer-lived malaria carriers.||Michael Riehle||3||Tucson - AZ||North America||Vectors||Malaria eradication||10/13/2009 7:43 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Arizona||2009||Approved||4.0|
|293||Steven Maranz of Weill Medical College in the U.S. will test the hypothesis that providing children high levels of flavanols, compounds found in chocolate, green tea, cola and shea nuts, deprives malaria parasites of lipids needed to survive, keeping parasite infection at levels low enough to elicit a strong immune response that builds lifelong immunity.||Steven Maranz||3||New York - NY||North America||Drugs||Malaria eradication||10/13/2009 7:47 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2009||Approved||3.0|
|294||Christopher Pilcher of the University of California, San Francisco in the U.S. will test the theory that HIV proteins, nucleic acids and antibodies to HIV can be detected in shafts of hair. This possible approach may provide a low-cost tool to determine the timing of HIV infection, which is essential to establish incidence rates in populations.||Christopher Pilcher||3||San Francisco - CA||North America||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/13/2009 7:48 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||3.0|
|295||Rebecca Richards-Kortum of Rice University in the U.S. will measure light scattered by malaria-infected red blood cells using a small microscope that can be placed on the skin as a way to detect infection in patients without the need to draw blood. This rapid and painless diagnostic would not require consumable reagents or a trained operator, and would not generate biohazardous waste. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that two key optical signatures could be used to recognize malaria-infected red blood cells and that these signatures could be visualized in the superficial vasculature of an animal model with a table-top microscope. In Phase II, Richards-Kortum and a team will develop a portable, battery-powered microscope and test its ability to image the superficial vasculature in humans and also quantify infected red blood cells in a small pilot study of malaria patients. ||Rebecca Richards-Kortum||3||Houston - TX||North America||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/13/2009 7:50 AM||11/1/2012 8:46 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Texas||2009||Approved||5.0|
|296||Yingjie Lu and Richard Malley of Children's Hospital Boston in the U.S. will develop a bivalent vaccine by conjugating a fusion of three novel, highly-conserved pneumococcal antigens to the already approved Vi polysaccharide vaccine used for typhus. The team will test its ability to induce strong humoral and cellular immune responses against both pneumococcus and typhoid fever.||Yingjie Lu||3||Boston - MA||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/13/2009 7:51 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||4.0|
|297||Allison Ficht of Texas A&M Health Science Center in the U.S. will develop a new TB immunization delivery system based on the protein used by parasitic worms to seal their egg case. This “sticky coating” for nanoparticle vaccines could protect antigens during intranasal administration, affix them to the nasal mucosa and erode in a controlled way to slowly release antigens for enhanced immune response against tuberculosis. ||Allison Ficht||3||College Station - TX||North America||Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||10/13/2009 7:53 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Texas||2009||Approved||4.0|
|298||Emmanuel Ho of the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada will develop a polyether urethane (PU) intra-vaginal ring designed to slowly release the HIV peptide gp120, as well as the cytokine IL-12 as an adjuvant, directly into the vaginal mucosa to stimulate a sustained mucosal immune response.||Emmanuel Ho||3||Winnipeg||North America||Alternative Prevention||Mucosal immunity||10/13/2009 7:54 AM||4/25/2012 1:49 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||Canada||2009||Approved||6.0|
|299||Bryan Greenhouse of the University of California, San Francisco, will design a series of microsatellites, short DNA repeats which have variable lengths in different parasites, to track individual parasites in two regions close to malaria elimination. If successful, this approach will provide insight into parasite transmission networks and help to guide future malaria eradication efforts.||Bryan Greenhouse||3||San Francisco - CA||North America||Diagnostics||Malaria eradication||10/13/2009 7:56 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||3.0|
|300||Juan Santiago of Stanford University in the U.S. will develop small, disposable diagnostic device that utilizes isotachophoresis, a technique that separates charged particles, to concentrate a key biomarker of malaria parasites. The goal of this technique is to provide test results within three minutes at a sensitivity much greater than current tests, allowing for detection of malaria at much earlier stages of infection and in asymptomatic individuals. ||Juan Santiago||3||Stanford - CA||North America||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/13/2009 8:00 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||3.0|
|301||Craig Morita of the University of Iowa in the U.S. will engineer Salmonella and Shigella vaccine vectors to overproduce an essential antigen to stimulate gamma delta T cells, to boost mucosal immune response against these enteric pathogens.||Craig Morita||3||Iowa City - IA||North America||Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||10/13/2009 8:03 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Iowa||2009||Approved||3.0|
|302||Alexander Cole of the University of Central Florida will attempt to restore natural expression of retrocyclins, antiviral peptides whose production in humans has been latent for millions of years. Cole will test inexpensive and widely available antibiotics for their ability to induce production of these retrocyclins, leading to its possible use as a vaginal microbicide.||Alexander Cole||3||Orlando - FL||North America||Alternative Prevention||Mucosal immunity||10/13/2009 8:05 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Florida||2009||Approved||5.0|
|303||Luiz Ozaki and Gail E. Christie of Virginia Commonwealth University in the U.S. will genetically engineer bacterial viruses to carry peptides that block the development of the malaria parasites, survive in the mosquito gut, and spread through vector populations. If successful, these bacteriophages could be used as “gene dissemination tools” for effective control of the malaria.||Luiz Ozaki||3||Richmond - VA||North America||Vectors||Malaria eradication||10/13/2009 8:06 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Virginia||2009||Approved||4.0|
|304||William Royea of Next Dimensions Technology, Inc., in the United States seeks to develop a point-of-care breath analyzer. The proposed system aims to use an array of chemical films that are sensitive to changes in electrical conduction as a result of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by tuberculosis.||William Royea||3||Pasadena - CA||North America||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/13/2009 8:07 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||3.0|
|305||Tycho Speaker of Transderm Inc. in the United States, along with Juvaris Biotherapeutics, will test the efficacy of a dry microneedle skin patch loaded with malaria antigens and a novel adjuvant for its ability to stimulate a robust immune response. If successful, this painless, low-cost, no-refrigeration vaccine delivery system could increase vaccine access to at-risk populations.||Tycho Speaker||3||Santa Cruz - CA||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/13/2009 8:13 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||California||2009||Approved||4.0|
|306||Suzanne Smith of STAR Analytical Services in the United States will study recorded cough samples with acoustic vocalization-analysis technology to identify sound characteristics that indicate specific symptoms of pneumonia with the aim of rapidly identifying the cause and severity of respiratory illness. It is hoped that such acoustic landmarks would help in the differentiation between viral infections and bacterial illnesses, each of which may require different treatments.||Suzanne Smith||3||Bedford - MA||North America||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/13/2009 8:14 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||3.0|
|307||Chang Yi Wang of United Biomedical, Inc. in the United States will develop and test synthetic peptide immunogens that mimic conserved sites used by HIV to gain entry to host T-cells. Mimicking the correct three-dimensional structure of these important proteins should generate antibody responses that block this initial step of HIV infection and neutralize the virus. ||Chang Yi Wang||3||Hauppauge - NY||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/13/2009 8:15 AM||3/21/2012 2:53 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2009||Approved||4.0|
|308||William Gordon and collaborators at Tetragenetics, Inc. in the U.S. propose using T. thermophilia, a fresh-water protozoa commonly used in basic research, to produce malaria antigens in a crystalline protein gel. The close evolutionary relationship between T. thermophilia and protozoan malaria parasites may allow the antigens to retain their natural conformation. In this way, multiple vaccine components can be readily harvested as a single, low-cost, high-potency vaccine formulation. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that T. thermophilia can be used to develop anti-malarial transmission blocking vaccines. In Phase II, Marco Cacciuttolo will lead a team of collaborators to further research the production and immune stimulating effects of multi-antigen and adjuvant formulations that could be used in a low-cost, long-lasting malaria vaccine.||William Gordon||3||Ithaca - NY||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/13/2009 8:16 AM||11/1/2012 8:46 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2009||Approved||6.0|
|309||Renjie Chang of Lavax, Inc. in the U.S. has developed a natural food substance that reduces HIV viruses in the mother’s milk, and will test it along with scientists at University of Toledo for its ability to block HIV transmission from mothers to infants.||Renjie Chang||2||Palatine - IL||North America||Alternative Prevention||HIV infection||10/13/2009 8:20 AM||3/21/2012 2:55 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/PreventEliminate/Pages/Round2.aspx||1||none||United States||Illinois||2009||Approved||7.0|
|310||Kevin Killeen of Matrivax R&D Inc. in the U.S. proposes applying a novel technology which entraps many polysaccharide antigens in a protein matrix. If successful, this prototype platform could increase the breadth of serotypes currently covered by pneumococcal vaccines as well as reduce costs of vaccine production. ||Kevin Killeen||3||Boston - MA||North America||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/13/2009 8:36 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||3.0|
|311||Howard Bernstein of Seventh Sense Biosystems in the U.S. will engineer a skin patch that can detect and measure malaria proteins in interstitial fluid. If successful, an easy-to-use biocompatible device may be able to allow continued monitoring of infection for a few weeks, instead of a single time point.||Howard Bernstein||3||Cambridge - MA||North America||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/13/2009 8:37 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United States||Massachusetts||2009||Approved||3.0|
|312||Tanapat Palaga of Chulalongkorn University in Thailand seeks to create a novel DNA vaccine delivery system that targets dendritic cells in GI mucosal tissues. Using chitosan nanoparticles to encapsulate DNA plasmid and protect it from stomach acid, this potential vaccine construct will contain both an antigen and an autophagy-inducing gene to enhance the vaccine’s efficacy.||Tanapat Palaga||3||Bangkok||Asia||Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||10/13/2009 9:16 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||Thailand||2009||Approved||3.0|
|313||Philip J. Shaw of Thailand’s National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology will seek to identify potential drug targets and vaccine antigens in the malaria parasite using a novel technology to reduce specific gene expression. By fusing a natural genetic “riboswitch” onto gene targets, the team will attempt to attenuate gene expression and thereby determine gene function.||Philip J. Shaw||3||Pathumthani||Asia||Research Tool||Malaria eradication||10/13/2009 9:18 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Thailand||2009||Approved||4.0|
|314||Abani Nag and Amiya Hati of Vivekananda International Health Centre in India will test the hypothesis that ultrasound measurements of the liver and spleen, as well as functional liver enzyme tests, will to help differentiate cases of relapse versus re-infection of malaria, leading to more appropriate treatment and drug therapies.||A.K. Nag||3||Kolkata||Asia||Diagnostics||Malaria eradication||10/13/2009 9:21 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||India||2009||Approved||3.0|
|315||Ranjan Nanda and Virander Chauhan of the International Centre for Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology in India will gather breath samples from tuberculosis patients and use gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and track unique molecules such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that might serve as biomarkers to diagnose tuberculosis. The overall goal is to then create a handheld “electronic nose” to diagnose the disease in resource-poor settings. The project’s Phase I research demonstrated that although no single VOC could be used as a biomarker to diagnose TB, there are key molecules in breath that do vary based on TB exposure and disease’s level of activity. In Phase II, Nanda will refine the biomarker signature to diagnose TB and test the ability of the portable “electronic nose” diagnostic tool equipped with a sensor array to specifically detect these key molecules in TB patients in India.||Ranjan Nanda||3||Delhi||Asia||Diagnostics||Diagnostics||10/13/2009 9:22 AM||7/12/2012 11:24 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round3.aspx|
|316||Deepak Gaur, Chetan Chitnis and Virander Chauhan of the International Centre for Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology in India will attempt to develop a blood-stage malaria vaccine that uses a combination of two proteins found among a wide diversity of malaria parasites. Their goal is to stimulate antibodies that would stop parasite infection of red blood cells by blocking multiple pathways of invasion.||Deepak Gaur||3||Delhi||Asia||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/13/2009 9:23 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||India||2009||Approved||3.0|
|317||Cecil Czerkinsky of the International Vaccine Institute in South Korea will test the efficacy of administering two approved vaccines sublingually – directly under the tongue. The team will attempt to produce not only antibody responses but also cytotoxic T cell responses in distant mucosal organs such as the lungs and reproductive tract. Sublingual vaccine administration could help improve vaccine delivery, compliance, and enhance immunity against a variety of pathogens.||Cecil Czerkinsky||3||Seoul||Asia||Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||10/13/2009 9:24 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||South Korea||2009||Approved||4.0|
|318||Federica Marelli-Berg of Imperial College London in the United Kingdom will test the theory that using “homing factors” as vaccine adjuvants will induce the development of memory T cells, thereby generating site-specific immunity against pathogens in the gut. This project’s Phase I research demonstrated that helminth infection in the presence of a homing factor led to an enhanced immunological effect. In Phase II, Marelli-Berg, now at the Queen Mary University of London, aims to develop this observation into a vaccination protocol for clinical application in this and other infections.||Federica Marelli-Berg||3||London||Europe||New Hypothesis||Mucosal immunity||10/13/2009 9:26 AM||11/1/2012 8:46 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none|| ||United Kingdom||2009||Approved||6.0|
|319||Lena Hulden of the University of Helsinki in Finland will test the hypothesis that saliva from newly emerging mosquitoes activates dormant P. vivax parasites in the liver. By robust statistical analysis of the timing of P. vivax outbreaks, as well as molecular analysis of mosquito saliva, Hulden hopes to eventually identify the trigger for these relapses in hopes of controlling outbreaks.||Lena Hulden||3||Helsinki||Europe||Alternative Prevention||Malaria eradication||10/13/2009 9:29 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Finland||2009||Approved||2.0|
|320||Annette Habluetzel of the University of Camerino in Italy seeks to develop a micropellet food for mosquito larvae made from non-toxic, organic compounds. These pellets, when ingested by the transparent larvae are activated by sunlight and kill the larvae, leaving other animals unharmed.||Annette Habluetzel||3||Camerino (MC)||Europe||Drugs||Malaria eradication||10/13/2009 9:30 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Italy||2009||Approved||2.0|
|321||Claudia Pastori of Fondazione S. Raffaele del Monte Tabor in Italy seeks to induce mucosal immunity against HIV by using a bacterial adhesive protein to target antigens to specific cells. The goal of this approach is to present conserved epitopes of HIV in their natural form to elicit the production of protective antibodies in the tissues where these antibodies will be effective. ||Claudia Pastori||3||Milan||Europe||Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||10/13/2009 9:31 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||Italy||2009||Approved||2.0|
|322||Edward Dolk of Utrecht University in the Netherlands proposes using two-sided antibodies, which bind to HIV and to transport receptors in the epithelium. Binding these receptors will cause excretion of the HIV particles outside of the body, thereby reducing viral load. ||Edward Dolk||3||Utrecht||Europe||Alternative Treatment||Mucosal immunity||10/13/2009 9:33 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||Netherlands||2009||Approved||2.0|
|323||Shahid Khan of Leiden University Medical Centre in the Netherlands seeks to produce a multi-stage malaria vaccine using transgenic sporozoites. These parasite forms will also present transmission blocking antigens to not only generate protective immunity against early stages of infection, but also generate antibodies to block transmission via mosquitoes.||Shahid Khan||3||Leiden||Europe||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/13/2009 9:34 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Netherlands||2009||Approved||2.0|
|325||Jeremy Webb and collaborators at the School of Biological Sciences in the United Kingdom will search for unique proteins that allow pneumococcal bacteria to form biofilms on mucosal surfaces. The team will use laser capture micro-dissection “laser tweezers” to dissect these bacterial communities with the goal of finding antigens common to all serotypes and could be used as the basis for future vaccines.||Jeremy Webb||3||Southampton||Europe||Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||10/13/2009 9:36 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round3.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2009||Approved||3.0|
|326||Roly Gosling of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom will conduct a pilot study in Tanzania to test whether malaria cases can be contained by treating the households and immediate neighbors of those diagnosed with malaria. The goal of this research is to understand whether such community approaches can clear asymptomatic carriers and eliminate parasites within these “hotspots.”||Roly Gosling||3||London||Europe||Alternative Prevention||Malaria eradication||10/13/2009 9:37 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2009||Approved||2.0|
|327||Matthew Fuchter and collaborators at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom proposes to test whether a novel chemical produced in some fungus species can control enzymes that control immune escape mechanisms in malaria parasites. If successful, this approach may not only force the parasite to present many surface proteins that are normally absent and stimulate a powerful immune response, but could also directly kill malaria parasites. ||Matthew Fuchter||3||London||Europe||Drugs||Malaria eradication||10/13/2009 9:38 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2009||Approved||3.0|
Simon Foote of the Menzies Research Institute at the University of Tasmania in Australia will use "forward genetic screening" approaches identify mutations that confer resistance after exposure to malaria parasites. The team will use this powerful information to develop drug therapies that target the human host and mimic these protective genetic effects.
|Simon Foote||3||Hobart Tasmania||Oceania||Research Tool||Malaria eradication||10/16/2009 11:20 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/CureInfection/Topics/AccelerateEradication/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Australia||2009||Approved||2.0|
Michael Lebens of the University of Gothenburg Institute for Vaccine Research in Sweden proposes to develop a new oral cholera vaccine using a single cholera strain that expresses antigens for both the Inaba and Ogawa serotypes, as well as produces cholera toxin subunits that act as an adjuvant to stimulate mucosal immune activity.
|Michael Lebens||3||Gothenburg||Europe||Vaccines||Vaccines||10/17/2009 3:36 AM||3/21/2012 2:54 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/NewVaccines/Pages/Round3.aspx||1||none||Sweden||2009||Approved||2.0|
|330||Juliana Cassataro of Universidad de Buenos Aires-CONICET in Argentina will research whether a bacterial protein can function as both a protease inhibitor to protect antigens delivered in an oral vaccine from degradation and also as an adjuvant to stimulate an enhanced mucosal immune response. ||Juliana Cassataro||4||Buenos Aires||South America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||4/29/2010 5:45 PM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round4.aspx||1||none||Argentina||2010||Approved||5.0|
|332||John Aitken of the University of Newcastle in Australia will study the mechanisms by which organic compounds called quinones may provide simultaneous protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease. Aitken will test the capability of quinones to react to enzymes in semen and not only immobilize sperm, but also disrupt the infective nature of pathogenic microbes found in STD infections such as Chlamydia||Robert Aitken||4||Callaghan||Oceania||Alternative Prevention||Create New Technologies for Contraception||Contraception||4/30/2010 10:52 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/Explorations/Topics/ContraceptiveTechnologies/Pages/round4.aspx||1||none||Australia||2010||Approved||8.0|
|333||Krassen Dimitrov of the University of Queensland in Australia will develop a new diagnostic test which utilizes nanoparticles which bind to specific biomarkers in saliva that are present during infection. With a magnetic particle binding to one side of a biomarker and a non-magnetic particle attaching to the other side, a visual “dumbbell” is formed, which can be detected using a low-cost magnetic reader.||Krassen Dimitrov||4||St Lucia||Oceania||Diagnostics||Measure Health Status||Diagnostics||5/3/2010 8:32 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||Australia||2010||Approved||4.0|
|334||Gregory Moseley, Stephen Rawlinson and David Jans at Monash University in Australia will engineer a live virus with a self-destruct sequence for use in a vaccine. This virus would be identical to a wild-type virus, but contain destabilizing domains fused to key proteins that can be regulated to first allow the virus to replicate and induce an immune response, and then be destroyed.||David Jans||4||Clayton||Oceania||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 8:35 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||Australia||2010||Approved||6.0|
|335||Guiying Nie of Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research in Australia will test whether a peptide inhibitor that has been shown to inhibit protein processing critical to HIV transmission can also be used to prevent embryo implantation in the uterus. If successful, the peptide could be used as a non-hormonal contraceptive delivered as a vaginal application, which also protects against HIV.||Guiying Nie||4||Melbourne||Oceania||Alternative Prevention||Create New Technologies for Contraception||Contraception||5/3/2010 8:37 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/Explorations/Topics/ContraceptiveTechnologies/Pages/round4.aspx||1||none||Australia||2010||Approved||4.0|
|336||Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrhea by producing two distinct enterotoxins that attack intestinal cells. Adrienne Paton and colleagues at the University of Adelaide in Australia propose to develop a harmless probiotic bacterium capable of binding and neutralizing both these enterotoxins by mimicking their respective receptors, thereby preventing disease.||Adrienne Paton||4||Adelaide||Oceania||Drugs||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 8:39 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||Australia||2010||Approved||3.0|
|337||Charani Ranasinghe of The Australian National University will test a new vaccine technology that modulates a host cytokine response to HIV vaccines. If successful, this “cytokine trap” technology may also enhance T-cell mediated immunity to other vaccine antigens, such as Tuberculosis.||Charani Ranasinghe||4||Canberra||Oceania||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||5/3/2010 8:41 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round4.aspx||1||none||Australia||2010||Approved||3.0|
|338||Firdausi QadriI of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (ICDDR,B) in Bangladesh proposes that the presence of parasites in the guts of people who receive enteric vaccines diminishes the resulting immune response. Qadril hopes that by providing children with antihelminthic and anti-giardiasis drugs prior to administration of an oral typhoid vaccine, a robust immune response can be mounted.||Firdausi Qadri||4||Dhaka||Asia||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 8:43 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||Bangladesh||2010||Approved||3.0|
|339||Sylvia van den Hurk and Sidney Hayes of the University of Saskatchewan in Canada proposes that bacteriophage lambda, a virus that invades bacterial cells and uses the host’s genome to replicate, can be used as a vector to deliver DNA vaccines into targeted cells. Van den Hurk will test this lambda delivery platform its ability to induce long-term systemic and mucosal immune responses.||Sylvia van den Hurk||4||Saskatoon - Saskatchewan||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||5/3/2010 8:45 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round4.aspx||1||none||Canada||2010||Approved||3.0|
|340||Hongyue Dang, of China University of Petroleum (East China) will research whether early-stage pneumonia infection produces specific biomarkers that can be detected in a breath analysis. If so, Dang will produce and test a prototype breath sensor device that can be used in low-resource settings to capture and analyze these signature chemical compounds as a method to diagnose pneumonia.||Hongyue Dang||4||Qingdao||Asia||Diagnostics||Measure Health Status||Diagnostics||5/3/2010 8:46 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||China||2010||Approved||3.0|
|341||Chang Liu and Xiaohong Kong of Nankai University in China seek to develop a self-destructive virus vector called HIVi, which will express small interfering RNA to silence HIV in infected cells, and also replicate in a controlled manner to outcompete the HIV infection before turning itself off. The efficacy of HIVi in interfering with HIV will be assessed using a number of standard HIV cell-based assays.||Chang Liu||4||Tianjin||Asia||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 8:50 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||China||2010||Approved||3.0|
|342||Carlos Alberto Guzman of the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Germany with Claus-Michael Lehr and Steffi Hansen of the Helmholtz-Institute for Pharmaceutical Research will develop and test a vaccine platform that uses a nanoparticle that mimics pollen, which has been shown to be able to penetrate the skin through hair follicles. The nanoparticle will burst upon contact with human sweat, releasing adjuvants and antigens to deliver a vaccine by targeting dendritic cells that surround hair follicles.||Carlos Alberto Guzman||4||Braunschweig||Europe||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||5/3/2010 8:51 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round4.aspx||1||none||Germany||2010||Approved||3.0|
|343||Heribert Warzecha of Darmstadt University of Technology in Germany will develop a peptide that can be reproduced in plants that generate nectar on which mosquitoes feed. This peptide, when ingested by the mosquitoes, interrupts the parasite transmission process in the insect gut, reducing the risk of transmission to humans.||Heribert Warzecha||4||Darmstadt||Europe||Vectors||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 8:52 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||Germany||2010||Approved||3.0|
|345||Rachel Teitelbaum of Hervana, Ltd. in Israel will develop and test a biological vaginal formulation that produces a sperm-binding agent, which interferes with sperm motility or fertilization or both. It is hoped that this non-hormonal contraceptive will need only infrequent administration to maintain its effectiveness. In this project's Phase I research, Teitelbaum developed a lead formulation and demonstrated initial proof-of-principle that such an approach can provide effective contraception. In Phase II, Teitelbaum and her team will expand upon this proof-of-principle in animal models to arrive at a long-acting, safe, and effective contraceptive that is ready for evaluation in human trials.||Rachel Teitelbaum||4||Beit Shemesh||Asia||Alternative Prevention||Create New Technologies for Contraception||Contraception||5/3/2010 8:58 AM||11/1/2012 8:46 AM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/Explorations/Topics/ContraceptiveTechnologies/Pages/round4.aspx||1||none||Israel||2010||Approved||6.0|
|346||Peter Ngure of Daystar University in Kenya seeks to develop a biological control for sandflies using fungi found in the local soil in Kenya. These entomopathogenic fungi, which attach like parasites onto adult insects and larvae and kill them, will be harvested and cultured to isolate virulent strains that can eradicate sandflies, which are responsible for the spread of visceral leishmaniasis.||Peter Ngure||4||Nairobi||Africa||Vectors||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 8:59 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||Kenya||2010||Approved||3.0|
|347||Benson Wamalwa of the University of Nairobi in Kenya will develop and test a vaginal gel that contains zeolite nanoparticles which soak up the fructose present in semen. By “mopping” up the fructose, this gel will rob sperm of the energy needed for motility. If successful, the gel could be used as an inexpensive, non-hormonal contraceptive.||Benson Wamalwa||4||Nairobi||Africa||Drugs||Create New Technologies for Contraception||Contraception||5/3/2010 9:00 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/Explorations/Topics/ContraceptiveTechnologies/Pages/round4.aspx||1||none||Kenya||2010||Approved||5.0|
|348||Carol Holm-Hansen of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in Norway, along with an international consortium of partners, seeks to develop a simple saliva-based assay test for the diagnosis of Tuberculosis. Serum samples from around the world will be collected to identify and select antigens that characterize the many strains of the bacteria for use in this new diagnostic method.||Carol Holm-Hansen||4||Oslo||Europe||Diagnostics||Measure Health Status||Diagnostics||5/3/2010 9:01 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||Norway||2010||Approved||3.0|
|349||Theresa Ochoa of Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Peru will test whether providing newborns with daily oral supplements of a key milk protein can protect them against sepsis during the critical early days in life. Lactoferrin, the most abundant protein in human and bovine milk, has been shown to have broad-spectrum antimicrobial capabilities, and could provide a new tool to fight neonatal infection and mortality in low-resource settings.||Theresa Ochoa||4||Lima||South America||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 9:02 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||Peru||2010||Approved||3.0|
|350||Youngnim Choi of Seoul National University in the Republic of Korea will test whether Fusobacterium nucleatum, a common bacteria often found in human mouths, can be used to deliver antigens to the oral mucosa. This bacteria has the ability to invade epithelial tissues, and Choi hopes to engineer a strain to express a vaccine antigen when given under the tongue to induce both antibody production and a strong cell-mediated immune response.||Youngnim Choi||4||Seoul||Asia||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||5/3/2010 9:03 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round4.aspx||1||none||South Korea||2010||Approved||3.0|
|351||Giulietta Saletti of the International Vaccine Institute in the Republic of Korea will work to develop an assay test that binds to tissue-specific cell markers to not only measure the concentration of anti-body secreting cells, but also identify which of those cells are targeted to mucosal tissues. If successful, this simple test that requires a small blood sample can be used in low-resource settings to measure mucosal immune responses to vaccines in infants and children.||Giulietta Saletti||4||Seoul||Asia||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||5/3/2010 9:04 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round4.aspx||1||none||South Korea||2010||Approved||3.0|
|352||Quan Liu of Nanyang Technological University in Singapore proposes to use magnetic nanoparticles with blood samples to attract and amplify hemozoin, a byproduct of malaria parasites found in infected red blood cells. Liu will use resonance Raman scattering (RSS) to observe and quantify the hemozoin for a simplified, rapid diagnosis of malaria.||Quan Liu||4||Singapore||Asia||Diagnostics||Measure Health Status||Diagnostics||5/3/2010 9:06 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||Singapore||2010||Approved||3.0|
|353||Susanne Nylén Spoormaker of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden will test the theory that chronic parasitic worm infections not only increase susceptibility to certain infections, but also impair the ability of the immune system to respond effectively to vaccines. Spoormaker will research whether treatment of worms prior to vaccination will improve the efficacy of vaccination for Tuberculosis and Leishmanasis.||Susanne Spoormaker||4||Stockholm||Europe||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 9:07 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||Sweden||2010||Approved||3.0|
|354||David Sintasath of Malaria Consortium in the United Kingdom proposes to treat the traditional scarves worn by migrant workers along the Thai-Cambodia border with insecticides to reduce the overall malaria disease burden. Sintasath will then monitor subsequent infection rates reported by area health facilities, and survey participants to learn more about their knowledge, attitude and use of the treated scarves.||David Sintasath||4||London||Europe||Alternative Prevention||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 9:08 AM||4/25/2012 1:45 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2010||Approved||9.0|
|355||Jasper Ogwal-Okeng of Makerere University in Uganda will test whether the insect-eating plants can reduce the population of mosquitoes and their larvae. Ogwal-Okeng will study optimal numbers and placement of such plants and record subsequent impact on mosquito and larvae populations to further refine this vector control method.||Jasper Ogwal-Okeng||4||Kampala||Africa||Vectors||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 9:09 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||Uganda||2010||Approved||3.0|
|356||Keith Dunning of the Millennium Health Microscope Foundation in the United Kingdom will develop a fluorescent variation of a new hand-held, low-cost microscope. Specimens such as Malaria parasites or Tuberculosis bacterium will become fluorescent at specific wavelengths thus easy to detect at low magnifications using this new palm-sized microscope.||Keith Dunning||4||Bedford||Europe||Diagnostics||Measure Health Status||Diagnostics||5/3/2010 9:13 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2010||Approved||4.0|
|357||Owain Millington and Gail McConnell of University of Strathclyde in the United Kingdom seek to adapt existing imaging systems to provide non-invasive in vivo imaging of Leishmania parasites present in macrophages and dendritic cells, and then use a targeted laser to destroy them. They will also test the hypothesis that targeting these cells for destruction will stimulate protective immunity against future Leishmania parasite infections.||Owain Millington||4||Glasgow||Europe||Alternative Treatment||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 9:14 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||United Kingdom||2010||Approved||3.0|
|358||Joseph Brown of the University of Alabama seeks to develop a low-cost, rapid method to detect pathogenic microbes present in drinking water. Using a filtration system to concentrate bacteria, a tester would add a engineered particles covered in antibodies to detect the presence of pathogens through visual agglutination. The proposed method would take less than 15 minutes to yield a visual result.||Joseph Brown||4||Tuscaloosa - AL||North America||Diagnostics||Measure Health Status||Diagnostics||5/3/2010 9:15 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/MeasureHealthStatus/Topics/CreateLowCostDiagnostics/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||United States||Alabama||2010||Approved||4.0|
|359||Robert H. Broyles of The Sickle Cell Cure Foundation, Inc. in the U.S. will build on the recent discovery that elevated fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which alleviates sickle cell disease, can also confer malaria resistance. Broyles will test the ability of a stable human protein to reactivate a silent gene that encodes for HbF, makings red blood cells inhospitable to malaria parasites. If successful, the idea is to target the therapy in the host to reduce malaria infections.||Robert H. Broyles||4||Oklahoma City - OK||North America||Drugs||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 9:17 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||United States||Oklahoma||2010||Approved||5.0|
|360||Jean-Laurent Casanova of The Rockefeller University in the U.S. seeks to identify single gene mutations that are critical to immunity against bacterial infections. By characterizing these mutations, Casanova could provide insight into a genetic basis for the susceptibility of some children to Tuberculosis, that could inform a recombinant IFN-y drug therapy.||Jean-Laurent Casanova||4||New York - NY||North America||Research Tool||Create New Vaccines||Protective strategies||5/3/2010 9:18 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/ProtectAgainstInfectiousDiseases/Pages/Round4.aspx||1||none||United States||New York||2010||Approved||4.0|
|361||Vincenzo Casolaro of the University of Maryland School of Medicine in the United States will test the ability of a novel synthetic peptide, AT1002, to induce the pathways within the mucosa to increase the delivery of antigens. If successful, this peptide could be used as an adjuvant to increase vaccine effectiveness and lower the costs of delivering vaccines.||Vincenzo Casolaro||4||Baltimore - MD||North America||Vaccines||Create New Vaccines||Mucosal immunity||5/3/2010 9:19 AM||3/21/2012 2:50 PM||https://www.grandchallenges.org/NewVaccines/Topics/MucosalImmunity/Pages/round4.aspx||1||none||United States||Maryland||2010||Approved||5.0|
|362||Eugene Chan of the DNA Medicine Institute in the U.S. proposes to develop a battery-powered non-invasive finger scanner to detect and measure hemozoin, a byproduct formed by malaria parasites, through the finger’s capillaries. If successful, mass manufacturing of the scanner should be possible due to basic components.||Eugene Chan||4||Cambridge - MA||North America|